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Removed unused variable

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Fixed incorrect parentheses being added when $showparens eq "same"

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Fixed the name stored in the StrictFraction context (removed the trailling s).

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Fix typo in changes for "no strict refs".

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Added no strict "refs" to try to avoid new error checking in Perl 5.10.

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Fix typo in comments

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Fixed differentiation of log() function (it used to give an error about undefined function D_ln).

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When (-x)*y or x*(-y) reductions are performed, don't print extra parentheses in string and TeX version. I.e., display as -xy not -(xy). This makes reduction with polynomials work better.

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Update the List() object to not add "(" and ")" around the list unless they are explicitly entered by the author. This prevents extraneous parentheses from being introduced into the problem text that the author hadn't expected. Parentheses now are added only for nested lists, as in List(1,List(2,3)), which will display as "1, (2, 3)", not "1, 2, 3".

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Cosmetic changes.

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Reduce -0 to 0.

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Formula objects and Context objects contain reference loops, which prevent them from being freed properly by perl when they are no longer needed. This is a source of an important memory leak in WeBWorK. The problem has been fixed by using Scalar::Util::weaken for these recursive references, so these objects can be freed properly when they go out of scope. This should cause an improvement in the memory usage of the httpd child processes.

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A couple of syntax issues.

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Make vectors that are creates using ijk notation remain in ijk notation when displayed. (This is easy now that objects produced by combining others inherit the parent objects' flags.) Added another context flag (ijkAnyDimension) that controls whether vectors in ijk notation will conform to whatever dimension is used by the vector they are being compared to. When set, i+2*j will equal <1,2> even though i and j are vectors in 3-space. The value of ijkAnyDimension is 1 by default. This eliminates the need for the Vector2D context.

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Make copies of the components rather than just copying the pointers.

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Derivatives of absolute values were leaving out the chain rule when written as |...| (but not as abs(...)). The chain rule is built into the derivatives of function objects automatically, but not of lists, which is how |...| is implemented (a special form of parentheses), and so I missed it when adding the derivative in this form. Argh!

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Updated contexts to include a "name" field that at least tracks what context you started with (though it can be modified and no longer be the same as the original context). Remove the individual named variables in the Default.pm file; they are now available only through the %Parser::Context::Default::context hash. Remove the >< and . operators, the <...> parentheses, the norm and unit functions, and the i, j, and k constants from the Point context. So the Point context no longer includes vectors and vector operaterations.

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Only try to form intervals from lists that could be intervals when they are of length 2.

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Load the UNIVERSAL package and make it available to Parser Items and Contexts.

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Always make units be in \textstyle (in particular, in the preview display).

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Make sure clear doesn't remove the special 'start' paren that is required by the Parser class.

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Improved method of looking up the item class so that it will work with more deeply nested namespaces.

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The "undef" in Parser::Context->getCopy(undef,"NAME") is no longer needed, and will be ignored if provided, but you can now use Parser::Context->getCopy("NAME"); which is more reasonable to read.

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Include extra parens when they have been requested.

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Added a reduce flag for x^1 processing (it was not able to be disabled before).

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Fixed a problem where Real's were being promoted to NumberWithReals during the numeric comparison (when units should be ignored). This error was a result of the changes made this summer. [This class should probably be redesigned to implement the overloaded operators and, in particular, handle the equality check in compare() rather than an over-ridden cmp_parse. That would make it possible to manipulate numbers-with-units via perl code in a natural way, just like all the other MathObjects.]

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Make sure ^ is quoted in character patterns so it doesn't become a negatted character pattern.

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Use getCopy() rather than depricated get() method.

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Allow Context()->variables-add(name=>[type,options]) format for declaring a variable.

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Better control over when extra parentheses are added.

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Remove the space inserted by \left...\right when it appears in a multiplication operation (so function calls look better, for example).

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Added new flags to error checking of operands and function arguments. This is so that a context can be developed that is more forgiving about what can be put next to what. Such a context can NOT be used for evaluation or answer checking, but can be used to generate TeX output in more sophisticated situations.

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Make the patterns be pre-compiled patterns for efficiency.

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Make sure the caiseInsensitive array is copied when the context is copied (so that the token list will be maintained correctly).

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Allow constants to be defined by a hash (like everything else) if desired.

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Cosmetic change.

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Allow constants to override their string representations.

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Removed some unneeded spaces in the comments.

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Make string() method use the separator specified in the List definition rather than a hard coded comma.

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Modified the method used to tokenize a formula to use one large pattern that includes all the token types rather than individual patterns for variables, strings, operators, and so on. This allows the Parser to handle the situation where a token of one type is a prefix of a token of another type (e.g., < as a parenthesis but <- as an operator) without worrying about which one is checked first. The new mtheod is also more flexible about having additional patterns (like quoted strings, or arbitrary variable names) and about specifying the order in which they are applied.

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Fixed error in derivative of quotients introduced by recent bad editing.

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Arrange for creation of constant Matrices to produce 1 x n matrices (rather than vectors) properly. (This involves including an extra array reference in List.pm, which must be removed in list types that don't need them, namely intervals and absolute value.)

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Do a better version of promote (get the context right) for these function calls.

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Only promote complex numbers of they aren't already complex (this prevents changing the context, since Parser::Function->call is called directly, so $self->context is the current context, not the context of the argument being passed).

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Added perl method so that the result is always a number (not a blank when it is false).

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Use Value->context rather than $$Value::context.

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Make the Package method really be a method of the context rather than the Value objects, and make the Value method call the context one. This means it is not necessary to pass the context as a parameter any longer.

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Fix typo, and handle case where Allow is called from package.

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Make context method work when called from package rather than blessed object.

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more fixes to handle the contexts properly.

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Fixed context issues and a typo (must have been interrupted when editing this file earlier). Also modified the units pattern to allow trailing spaces.

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Don't use \cdot with things like 3i.

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Added Package method to the Context object to replace the Value->Package() calls and simplify the $self->Package calls (don't have to look up the context again).

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Only set the context if the data is a MathObject.

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More fixes for creating items in the corret context. Also added a method for looking up the package associated with a particular Parser class (for consistency with the Value->Package call).

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Allow promote() to accept a context as the first argument so that the promoted object can be forced into the given context.

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Update to handle the fact that the Value package now includes the context with all MathObjects. (This may still need some work.)

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Context() now always makes a copy of the context, even if it comes from the problem's local contxt table. That way it will work consistently no matter where the context comes from. (In the past, if PGcourse.pl made a local copy of a context that it could modify, for example, then Context() would not copy it when it was called, and that means problems that relied on Context(name) resetting the context to its original values would not work properly.

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Updated to include some recent changes in documentation and removal of old commented-out code.

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More updates for marking MathObjects with the context in which they were created, so they should now work like the Formula objects in that respect. As they are combined via overloaded operators, they should pass on their contexts correctly. Also normalized the use of getFlag() to obtain flags from the MathObject's context rather than looking in the context directly. This allows the math object to override the flag by setting the flag value in the object's hash (e.g., $f->{tolerance} = .001). I've also added the ability to override context flags via the answerHash (e.g., $f->cmp(tolerance => .001)), though some filtering may need to be added to this at some point. Note that ONLY the context flags can be overridden, not other parts of the context.

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This begins some major updates to the Parser and Value libraries. This may make the MathObjects unstable as things shake down, but I'll try to keep that to a minimum. This update reorganizes how the overloading of operations are implemented. The base Value class is now overloaded rather than the individual Value classes. This makes it easier to make subclasses that take advantage of the overloading. The code that handles promoting one MathObject to another has been updated as a part of this. This should also make subclassing the existing MathObjects more flexible. In the past, Formula objects included a pointer to the Context in which the object was created, but other MathObject did not. This update is the first round of updates to include the context in the other MathObjects, but more work needs to be done. The changes here should not affect existing problems; it is possible that some macro files will need to be updated, but none of the standard ones in pg/macros seem to need it at the moment.

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Modified the way the Parser-based versions of the traditional answer checkers get copies of their contexts. They now use a new method getCopy to obtain the copy either from the problem's context table or the default table (rather than only from the default). That way the instructor can use parserCustomization.pl to customize the contexts used by the answer checkers.

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Added a Vector2D context that has i and j defined as vectors in 2-space so that they can be used to generate vectors in 2D. This avoids students getting the "incorrect number of coordinates" error.

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Begin pod documentation.

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Add a new operator // to be the same as / except its TeX form is a/b rather than \frac{a}{b}. This makes it possible get horizontal fractions in exponents, for example, where vertical fractions often don't look so good.

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Abstracted the NumberWithUnits to a more general ObjectWithUnits and moved the FormulaWithUnits to this file as well, since most of the code is common. Although, strictly speaking, FormulaWithUnits is not legacy code, since the general object-with-units is here, it will be easier to maintain FormulaWithUnits here as well. When the Parser gets a real units class, all of this can be removed. Also fixed the unit lookup code to use the actual names from the Units library, so we can now be more accurate about determining the extent of the units, and can handle things like '5 kg m / s' now. In the case of ambiguous formulas with units, e.g., '5m kg' where m is a variable, use '5*m kg' or '(5m) kg'.

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The Units.pm library only accepts one division within the units, and the Parser wasn't taking that into account, so students could enter m/s/s and still get credit even if the units were m/s. This have been fixed.

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Fixed a problem where the TeX version included two copies of the units (one in TeX mode and one from the string() output).

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Make sure \cdot is only used for a numeric right-hand part (finishes fix of bug 1114).

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Use \cdot when a number is followed by a numeric fraction. (Fixes bug 1114.)

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Fixed bad check for if the complex number is 1 (caused reduce to incorrectly remove the complex number when used in multiplication).

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Fixed problem where a zero with units would me marked as "not looking like anumber with units".

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Make a more sophisticated unit check so that it will handle things like "3ft / s" (that don't have a space before the units). Really need to make a units class for the Parser.

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Fixed unit checking so that units can include spaces (like 4 ft / min). Also fixed a problem where units were not being reported as part of the student's entered answer.

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Allow matrices to set their own templates (instead of using "c" for all columns), and handle missing open and close delimiters better.

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Allow the _check subroutine to affect the {isConstant} field.

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Added ability to overrid TeX and perl versions by specifying a TeX or perl field in the variable definition. Also made vector-valued variables show up in bold.

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Fixed a problem with derivatives of constant-valued Matrices (and vectors and points). They were incorrectly getting an extra level of nesting.

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Extended the differentiation operator to handle multiple derivatives: $f->D("x","y") is the same as $f->D("x")->D("y") $f->D(2) is the same as $f->D->D $f->D(2,"x") is the same as $f->D("x")->D("x") and so on.

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Fixed a bug that caused can error when a Complex1 object was passed to the answer checker (rather than a string that needs to be parsed).

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Change check for zero from fuzzy check to strict check (when the problem used absolute tolerances, in particular, this can causebig problems).

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Fixed problem with formula-valued matrices producing an error message incorrectly. (Was checking the wrong attribute of the entries.)

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Fixed problem with variables that are multiplied with no space between them (e.g., "ax") that was introduced when I changed the pattern to allow multi-letter variable names. The solution is to first check against the defined names before checking for the more complete name pattern.

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Allow multi-letter variable names and names like x1, x2, etc.

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Fixed a problem with not including parentheses when a negative number is the base of a power. (And in general, when a negative is used as an operand of a higher-precendence operation, but it really only affected powers.)

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Give better error messages when the entries in Points, Vectors and Matrices are not of the right type.

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Adjusted the parentheses slightly so that matrices will only be formed in Matrix context, not Point or Vector context (this produced confusing messages for students in some circumstances where they didn't balence their parentheses correctly).

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Modified context data objects to provide a copy method so that the various types of data can copy themselves (and can provide a more comprehensive copy if necessary).

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Add a new context flag that controls how the student answer should be displayed. The formatStudentAnswer flag can be set to 'evaluated' (the default), which shows the final numeric answer; 'parsed', which shows the fully parsed version (including extra parentheses for clarity); or 'reduced', which performs constant operations, but doesn't perform function evaluations or named-constant substitutions. For example, if the student answers 1+2+sqrt(3), then 'evaluated' will produce 4.73205, 'reduced' will show 3+sqrt(3), and 'parsed' will show 1+2+sqrt(3).

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If constant functions are not being reduced, don't mark the function call as constant (since otherwise it might be evaluated later accidentally).

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Added ability to have answers that are empty strings. String("") now will produce a valid string object regardless of the Context's defined string values. (You can prevent this using Context()->flags->set(allowEmptyStrings=>0); if you wish). String("")->cmp will produce an answer checker for an empty string (it removes the blank checker that WW installs).

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Prevent the empty list from having open and close be set to 'start' (a value used internally).

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Added support for cplx_cmp() using the Parser. Move lib/Parser/Legacy/PGcomplexmacros.pl to the pg/macros directory to use it. As with the other legacy macros, $useOldAnswerMacros can be controlled to determine whether the new or the old macros are used. There is a new mode 'strict_cartesian' that is parallel to 'strict_polar'. You must enter a+bi form, but the a and b can have operations within them.

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The perl method for UOP and BOP now put spaces around the operator, to prevent Perl from thinking that things like -e is a file test and *Parser::Function->call is a name reference. (Some of these had been done by hand earlier, but now the base BOP and UOP classes handle it, so we should not have problems in the future). I removed the ad hoc fixes from several other locations (Parser/Function.pm, Parser/Context/Default.pm). Also extended the operator definitions to allow operators to create function-call syntax in perl mode (for when the operator doesn't correspond to a perl operator).

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Added a Point context that is a copy of the Vector context. This will allow users to override some settings in Vector context (namely, how they are entered and displayed) without preventing users from being able to enter points (in Point context).

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Fix bug where perl functions which may need parentheses by forcing them when the function starts Parser::Function->. This seems to work, but there might be a better way to do it, or need other cleaning up.

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Updated instructions to match changes to global.conf.dist and the move or PGanswermacros.pl.

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A separate copy of this file is no longer needed.

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Fixed problem with Context's not properly initializing themselves with the WW environment parameters (like zeroLevelTol and useBaseTenLog). The copy method and the method that did an initialized copy used to be separate routines, but that turned out to be unnecessary, so they have now been merged (copy always tries to initialize the WW values when it can, and when the copied context doesn't already have them). The reason this is complicated is that a number contexts are set up before the global.conf data is available, so these can't be initialized with the WW values. Also, these default contexts are stored in the persistant processes, and we don't want to leave possibly course-specific values lying around in them, so whenever a context is selected, it is copied from the standard version and the WW parameters are inserted into it. The problem author can only modify the copy, not the original, so this is OK with mod_perl. The context's copy method now always tries to initialize (we used to have to call initCoopy to get a copy that has the WW parameters inserted). That turned out to cause trouble with code that handled contexts without the usual Context() command.

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Fixed log and log10 perl methods so that log obeys the useBaseTenLog flag, and log10 doesn't try to call main::log10, which is not available from within this preloaded package. The in- and outside the safe compartment stuff is very confusing, and functions that are not overloaded native perl functions seem to be not callable from the Value::Formula package, so the perl method now calls Parser::Function->call() directly (doesn't look pretty, but I've given up on that).

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Made relative tolerances the default for when the tolType is not one of 'relative' or 'absolute'.

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Added code to handle the case where the professor's answer is in expondential notation using a little e instead of a big one. (Perl will convert .0000001 to 1E-07, for example, before it is passed to num_cmp.)

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Fixed more undefined values

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Changed Context() call to direct reference to context, so as not to leave the wrong content selected as the current one.

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Added canBeInUnion and isSetOfReals methods to the Parser package (similar to the ones in the Value package), replacing the canBeInterval flag and other ad hoc checks. Removed ability to form interval like [a] now that we have sets.

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Added isSetOfReals and canBeInUnion methods to the Value objects, and replaced the ad hoc tests for these conditions to call these routines. Cleaned up the make() methods for Intervals, Sets and Unions, and improved the new() methods to handle more cases better. Fixed Value::makeValue() to handle an array reference correctly. I don't THINK any of this will break anything. :-)

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Fixed a problem with redefine when used with classes that store their data in a on-standard form (i.e., by overridding the create() method). Now they can define uncreate() to get the original data back for use with redefine().

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Fixed typo in previous update.

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Added sets to the differentiation information (no derivatives allowed)

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Added ability for Unions and Sets to simplify themselves (automatically or on demand), and added flags to the Context and answer checkers to control these features. The new Context flags are reduceUnions tells whether unions are automatically reduced when they are created. reduceUnionsForComparison tells whether unions are reduced before comparing them for equality or inequality (etc) if they aren't reduced already. reduceSets tells whether redundent elements are removed from sets as they are created. reduceSetsForComparison tells whether sets are reduced before comparing them. All of these default to true. The Interval, Set, Union, and List answer checkers not have two new flags for controlling these values: studentsMustReduceUnions tells whether unions and sets will be counted as incorrect when they are not reduced to non-overlapping intervals and at most one set with no repeated entries. showUnionReduceWarnings tells whether an error message will be produced for non-reduced unions and sets, or if they will be marked wrong silently. (Not available in Lists.) Both of these are true by default, since most professors probably want their students to write intervals in reduced form. (Is this true?) This corresponds the the current behavior of the interval checkers, which require the student's answer to be the same set of intervals as in the professor's, but with the addition of an error message when the student answer is not reduced.

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Fixed use of undefined value for $position in TeX and String methods.

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Made the 'R' constant in Interval context show up as a bold R in TeX mode.

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Mark function as constant if it is.

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Added redefine() function to complement undefine() for various Context() values. For example Context()->operators->undefine('+'); makes '+' undefined, but Context()->operators->redefine('+'); will put it back. You can specify a context from which to take the redefinition, and a name in that context, as in Context()->operators->redefine('U',from=>"Interval"); Context()->operators->redefine('u',from=>"Interval",using=>"U"); Context()->operators->redefine('U',from=>$content); where $content is a reference to a Context object. The undefine() function lets you undefine several items at once, as in Context()->operators->undefine('+','-'); For redefine, you must put multiple names in square brackets because of the optional parmeters: Context()->operators->redefine(['+','-']);

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Fixed bug with missing fields in initialization.

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Added ability to subtract intervals, sets and unions. Adjusted the precedence of the union 'U' to be above _ and + so that things like (1,5) U (7,10) - {8} U (2,3) will do ((1,5) U (7,10)) - ({8} U (2,3)) rather than the previous (1,5) U ((7,10) - {8}) U (2,3). Finally, added a constant 'R' to the Interval context that is equivalent to (-inf,inf), so you can do things like R-{0} now. Still need to work out reducing unions so that things like (1,3)U(2,4) can become (1,4).

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Changes needed for new Set object, plus for moving string, TeX and perl into Value.pm. Also removed unneeded spaces in perl versions of the constants (these were to fix problems with the minus sign, but that is now being handled by the minus operators themselves).

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Changes needt for Set object, and fixed a bug with unions containing constant intervals with non-constant ones.

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Added new Set object class to the Parser. It implements a finite set of real numbers, for use with unions and intervals. E.g., (1,2) U {3} or (1,2) U {3,4,5}. You can created Set objects in your perl code via the Set() command, e.g, Set(3,4,5) or Set("{1,2,3}"). You should set the Context to Context("Interval") if you plan to use Set objects, as this defined the braces to form sets (rather than using them as parentheses, which is the default WW behavior). Note that in Interval context, you can NOT use braces as parentheses. Current, Set objects are only allowed to be sets of numbers. It would be possible to extend that in the future.

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Make upper-case alias a hidden one (since it is not needed for the pattern).

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Dereference aliases to aliases properly.

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The Parser versions of num_cmp and fun_cmp incorrectly left the current Context set to the base context used by the answer checker. The Context is now correctly reset to the one in effect before the call to num_cmp or fun_cmp. Also removed some redundant values in if-then checks.

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Fixed a bug that would cause step() to produce an error when called on a constant value. Also, added fact() function that was defined in Algparser but not in Parser (which uses x! notation).

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Added missing "step" function that was defined in the AlgParser but not in the Parser. Be sure to copy the updated PGanswermacros.pl to the pg/macros directory.

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Added postfilter to Parser-based implementation of NUM_CMP so that the student's answer is updated to be the result of evaluating the answer (when there is no error in evaluating the answer). This correctly reflects the behaviour of the original NUM_CMP.

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Updates to make mode=>'frac' properly emulate the original num_cmp behavior (it now allows decimals and fractions instead of requiring a fraction). There is also a new LimitedNumeric-StrictFraction context (not currently used) that disallows decimals and requires fractions.

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Folded in Mike's changes for status messages.

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Fixed typo related to useBaseTenLog.

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A first pass at making parser error messages localizable. The Context()->{error}{msg} hash can be used to specify translations of the standard messages. For example, Context()->{error}{msg}{'Division by zero'} = "Don't divide by zero, dude!"; Context()->{error}{msg}{'Function '%s' has too many inputs'} = "You passed too many arguments to '%s'"; (I didn't translate into another language, here, but you could do that, too.) The msg hash could also be used within answer checkers to make certain answer messages more appropriate for the given type of expected answer.

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Fixed various perl compiler warnings (due to extra "my", and so on).

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Fixed problem with minus signs in formulas that are turned into perl mode. Perl needs extra spaces to avoid problems with -e type operators.

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Fixed typo in installation instructions.

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Don't load Parser.pl (it causes trouble with the Matrix.pm module). We only needed it because of the calls to Real() that were being used by Formula objects, so have them call Value::Real directly. be sure to get the latest versions of Parser and Value (including the top-level Parser.pm and Value.pm) in order to use this update.

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Modified the perl() method to make calles to Value:: directly rather than to the main:: stubs for creating Value objects. This will make it work better from within packages or when Parser.pl hasn't been loaded. A few things still won't work in this case; e.g., calls to Closed() for intervals (these could be handled better using ->with()) and to functions like Factorial and log10 that are defined in Parser.pl. Finally, there should be better object-based control over what routines are called to create these objects, so that subclasses of the Value objects will be able to be generated correctly.

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Modified formatting

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Main file that calls in the legacy modules.

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Folded in Mike's changes to checkbox_cmp.

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This is an attempt at making the traditional answer checkers call the new Parser in place of their original ones. That is, if you follow the instructions in the README file, then problems that use std_num_cmp(), fun_cmp(), etc. will really be using the new Parser instead of the original PGanswermacros.pl versions. The old answer checkers are still available, and can be switched back on a site-wide, course-wide, or problem-by-problem basis. See the README for details.

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Fixed problem with sorting (problem with $a, $b, I think).

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Handle TeX versions of variables whose names include underscores better.

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Allow Parser::Number::NoDecimals() to accept a context to be modified (rather than always changing the curent context).

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Updates to allow string matches to be case-insensitive. This is now the default, and can be overridden in the Context by setting the string's "caseSensitive" attribute. e.g.: Context()->strings->add("FooBar"=>{caseSensitive=>1}); would rewuire "FooBar" to be entered exactly as typed.

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Fixed a bug in the enable/disable routines that would cause them to always work on the current context rather than the one whose enable/disable method was being called.

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Fixed Disable() and Enable() so that they can be called as Context()->functions->disable() and Context()->functions->enable() as well as Parser::Context::Functions::Disable() and Parser::Context::Functions::Enable() The former is the preferred syntax.

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Allow for vectors to be marked as Column Vectors.

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During a call(), if the evaluation produced an error message generated by Value::Error, report it, otherwise report a generic message.

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Added derivative of |x| as x/|x|.

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Added a check that the coordinates are numeric. This avoids an error were <i+j+k> was accepted as OK.

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Peroperly negate infinities even when reduceConstants is not in effect.

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Handle extra parentheses better.

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Handle log as ln or log properly.

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removed a commented-out line that was no longer needed.

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Fixed a typo.

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Added reduction rules to remove redundent negatives. Override string and TeX methods that avoid redundent parentheses.

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Trap errors in functions that are not native perl functions (like acos() and csc(), etc.). In the past, if an error occurred within the definition of a function, the error message that was reported was the internal error within the definition of the function. For example csc(0) would report "illegal division by zero", while acos(-2) would report "can't take sqrt of -3". Now the errors will be "can't take csc of 0" and "can't take acos of -2".

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Added support for useBaseTenLogs to make log() work like ln() or log10() depending on the value in the course.conf file. Also fixed a bug that caused the WeBWorK parameters not to be copied into contexts by initCopy().

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In Complex context, make sqrt() and log() of negative numbers return their complex values. Also make ^ and ** do the same with negative bases. These can be controlled by setting/clearing the "negativeIsComplex" entry for these functions and operators.

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Report errors for powers of negative numbers rather than return 'nan'. Don't allow 'nan' to be made into a Real object.

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In StandardPrecedence mode, make the precedence of function apply match that in use by that AlgParser.

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Allow string constants to include spaces.

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Eliminated unneeded parentheses in TeX output when unary minus and plus are used with fractions.

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Added isZero and isOne checks for Parser::Value objects (i.e., for constants within formulas). These now correctly handle vector and matrices, in particular. The isOne and isZero checks are used in the reduce() method to simplify formulas.

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File needed to reduction flags that was accidentally left out of the previous commit. Sorry!

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Added flags that control the reductions performed by Formula()->reduce. Each reduction operation can be individually enabled or disabled in the context, and in the reduce() call itself. More complex reductions need to be developed.

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Fixed typo in addParens method name.

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Added context flags to control automatic reduction of operations that involve only constant values. The default is to combine constants, but this can now be disabled. Also added a new flag to control the addition of extra parentheses that make string values painfully unambiguous (these are for situations that students tend to get wrong). By default this is turned off (so that professor answers won't contain excessive parentheses), but the answer checker will be made to turn this on for student answers. Finally, when extra parens are added to formulas, they alternate between ( ) and [ ] to make it easier to read.

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Produce an error when attempting to auto-create a formula using a function that has been removed from the current context.

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Fixed a bug with constants where the values were being cached so that changes in the context were not being reflected in the formulas that use them.

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When creating formulas from functions, don't evaluate even if the formula is constant. (This makes it possible to create automatically create formulas even if they only contain constants.)

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Changed the error message produced for functions that have been removed from the parser. I hope this will be more appropriate for students.

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Only convert (f(x))^2 to f^2(x) for specified functions f (as marked in the Context).

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Two more minor TeX improvements.

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Improved TeX and string output in a number of situations. Improved use of parentheses to avoid things like x+-3. Fixed wrong parentheses in powers. Display (sin(x))^2 as sin^2(x) in TeX output.

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Added ability to have linear adaptive parameters in the function answer checker. It only works for real-valued functions, though. To use a parameter, use Context()->variables->add(a=>'Parameter'); and then use 'a' as a variable within your answer. The student will not be allowed to enter the parameter, but the professor will. Note that the correct answer will show the full professor's answer, including the parameters, even though the student can't type it. Is this the right behaviour?

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Added the makeUnion call that was removed earlier. The AnswerChecker for formulas sometimes called it (when the student's answer is constant).

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TeX mode now adds parentheses around fractions, when needed.

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Made string function look for a string field in teh definition of the function as an override for its name. (This way, you can make asin appear as arcsin or even sin^(-1) if you want).

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Fixed wrong error messages when operators are undefined in a context.

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Modified the parser so that the classes for the various object constructors are stored in the context table rather than hard-coded into the parser. That way, you can override the default classes with your own. This gives you even more complete control to modify the parser. (You had been able to replace the definitions of operators, functions and list-like objects, but could not override the behaviour of numbers, strings, variables, and so on. Now you can.) This effects most of the files, but only by changing the name of the calls that create the various objects. There are also a couple of other minor fixes.

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Get the type right when evaluating an AbsoluteValue and obtaining a Value object.

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Added easy calls to disable/enable collections of functions or individual functions in the current context. So you can say Parser::Context::Functions::Disable('Trig'); to disallow the use of trig functions, or Parser::Context::Functions::Disable('Trig','Numeric'); Parser::Context::Functions::Enable('sqrt'); to disable trig and numeric functions (like log, exp, abs, etc) but allow sqrt. Note that disabling sqrt() does not disable x^(1/2) (this must be done through disabling the ^ and ** operators), and disabling abs() does not disable |x| (which must be done by removing the '|' definition from the Context's parens list).

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Fixed some inconsistencies between handing of matrices within the parser and Value packages. Added a predefined Matrix context.

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Fixed TeX output of Matrices to use \array rather than \matrix for matrices with formulas as entries (this had already been fixed for constant matrices). Made intervals produce formulas when of of the endpoints is a formula. Removed unneeded comment.

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Formulas can now be compared even if their variables are complex numbers, or even points or vectors! This makes it possible to ask students for complex functions like z^2+i and so on. You can specify limits for variables either via Context()->variables->set(x=>{limits=>[0,1]}) (for reals) or Context()->variables->set(z=>{limits=>[[-2,2],[0,1]]}) (for complexes). Similarly for points and vectors (where the number of sub arrays depends on the dimension). You can also give the limits for a specific formula by assigning to its ->{limits} field: $f = Formula("sqrt(x-10)"); $f->{limits} = [10,12]; There are now named variable types for 'Point2D', 'Point3D', 'Vector2D' and 'Vector3D', in addition to 'Real' and 'Complex'. You can also specify a variable type by giving an explicit instance of a value of the given type. E.g. Context()->variables->add(x=>'Real',y=>0); # two real variables Context()->variables->add(z=>'Complex',w=>i); # two complexes Context()->variables->add(r=>Vector(0,0,0)); # a vector in R^3 Context()->variables->add(X=>'Vector3D'); # a vector in R^3 There still needs to be more error checking in processing user-supplied limits, but I'm not sure how much overhead is worth it.

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Made the default context be Numeric context rather than Full context. Since there is only one variable in this context, it will speed up function answer checking. It will also encourage you to choose the correct context explicitly. Also changed Complex context to have z as the only variable. If you want x and y as reals, you need to add them in by hand. Again, this is for efficiency in answer checking.

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Added a file to perform WeBWorK-specific modifications to the Parser/Value packages. (I've tried to make these independent of WeBWorK, so you can use them in other perl code if you want to.) The parameters for fuzzy reals and some of the other parameters now are taken from the pg->{ansEvalDefaults} values (as defined in global.conf or course.conf). More still needs to be done with this, however.

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A number of adjustments to get negative infinities to work better. They used to be stored as separate Parser strings, but now they are flagged versions of a single string. All of the problems are really due to the fact that there is no Infinity class in the Parser (only a Value version). That should be changed, but will require some work, and can be put off for now. It would be best if the classes within the two packages would match up nearly 1-to-1, but for historical reasons, they don't. Since the introduction of Real, String and Infinity classes to the Value package, The Infinity class is the one main difference between the two, and once that is fixed, everything needs to be looked over to check for unnecessary complications due to the historical lack of classes in one or the other package.

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Make blank patterns be ^$ (which should never match) rather than empty (which always matches). this fixes a problem where if a context has no functions, for example, the parser would attempt to create function calls to a function named ''.

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Fixed typo.

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Fixed error with handling of +infinity and -infinity. (They had been defined as strings, but now we can let the + and - operators handle them).

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Added Parser::Number::NoDecimals() function that causes the parser to give an error message when the student types a decimal number. This means the student must enter fractions as fractions, or values like sqrt(2) or pi/4 symbolically not numerically.

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Context() now accepts a reference to an actual Context object rather than a name of a predefined context, and will switch to that.

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Make sure equality always returns a defined value, and put spaces around the equal sign in string output.

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Use the standard precedences rather than the experimental ones by default. The professor will need to specificaly request the non-standard ones, for now.

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Fixed a number of minor problems with creating perl functions from formulas (this is done automatically as part of the function answer checker, so is showing up now that I have that checker in place). Also improved error messages in the function answer checker, and fixed a bug when students enter a constant list or union when the answer checker expects formulas.

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Allow parser "constants" to be (in reality) formulas. That way, for example, you can defined T, N and B to be the formulas for the unit tangent, normal and binormal of a space curve (as functions of "t") and the student can write anwers in terms of T, N and B (without having to compute them). You could have created FUNCTIONS T(t), N(t) and B(t), and added them to the parser to get almost the same effect, but the students would have had to include the "(t)". (If you want that, go ahead and do it that way.)

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One more fix for handling intervals properly (I think it's really right this time). Also, named constants that end in numbers will produce TeX output with the number as a subscript (this was already true for variable names).

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Added string comparison to all Value object classes (to compare the string value of an object to another string). Overloaded perl '.' operator to do dot product when the operands are formulas returning vectors. (Part of the auto-generation of formulas). A few improvements to real and complex class output results. Made Union class slightly more robust and removed need for makeUnion method other than in the Union itself.

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Added support for unorderd list or formulas with partial credit. Fixed type mismatch reporting in formula answer checker. Fixed an error with Unions producing incorrect perl versions under some circumstances.

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Created the first draft of the Parser's function answer checker. Some work still needs to be done, in particular, type mismatches are not being reported, and lists are being processed only as ordered lists with no partial credit. This doesn't implement everything from fun_cmp. In particular, there is no support for parameter matching at the moment. This will have to be added, but I'm not quite sure how to do it when the function's return value is not a real number (e.g., an interval). On the other hand, this checker is more forgiving about domain errors: if tries a point where the professor's function is not defined, it ignores that one and looks for another (until it decides it can't find one). Once it has these points, it tries them on the student's answer, and if the student's function is undefined, then the student answer is wrong (since it is not defined somewhere that the professor's funciton is). This avoids the "Error evaluating student function at ..." messages, which just confused most students anyway.

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Improved error messages, particularly when the student enters a formula in an answer that should be constant, and also for incorrect answers in lists of answers. There are a few other miscellaneous output improvements as well.

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Had to put back the global context variable after all. :-( It gets reset in Parser.pl, so it should be OK even with mod_perl.

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Modified Context() function so that it no longer uses a global package variable for storing the user's context table.

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Added an equality operator (not active initially) that can be used for things like equations of planes and so on. I'm working on the answer checker for that.

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*** empty log message ***

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Fixed some bugs in the handle of the context in ->string and ->TeX methods of Value objects.

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Added a String type to the Value package. Mostly this is to make it possible to generate an answer checker for it that uses the parser. It also makes it more consistent for handling things like stringify, especially when they are recursively called internally. Added new default strings "NONE" and "DNE", since these get used a lot. Modified how the default parameters are set up for the answer checkers, and how the answer checker reports the expected answer type in type mismatch error messages.

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Allow unary + and - to work on infinities.

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Incorporated infinities into Parser package better. They have been stored as String objects (with extra data) in the parser, and I've left it that way, but now they convert to/from Vallue::Infinity objects correctly, and these are used for generating the output. Also added the Infinity answer checker, and adjusted the error messages produces by type mismatches in the answer checkers and elsewhere.

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Added answer checker for parallel vectors. Added option to number checker to have it not report type mismatches for the known strings (like 'infinity'). (Really need a class for infinities, and a Value.pm class for strings.)

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Have parser handle infinities better.

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Fixes for handling intervals better. In particular, deal better with ambiguous situations, like (1,2) that could be a point. You can use [a,a] to specify the single point a. I'd like to make {a} represent this (and maybe even {a,b,c} to form finite sets), but this would interfere with the use of { and } as alternative parentheses. (Does anyone really use these?) Do we need a cross product for intervals (and sets) as a means of representing regions in R^2 (or higher)?

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A number of small fixes. Most were to fix minor bugs in string and TeX output, particulary for the various list-based objects (like vectors, intervals, etc.). There were also some bug fixes in the comparison routines. Some additional checks were added for valid intervals when the coordinates are formulas.

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Significant update to new parser. New features include: Better control over format of vector output (you can now specify ijk-format rather than <...> format) "Fuzzy" reals, where the relations like == return true when the two values are "close enough". (This is controlable using parameters similar to those used in NUM_CMP). The fuzzy reals are now used in vectors/points/matrices/complexes/intervals and so on so that their relations will also be fuzzy. E.g., (1E-13,2) == (0,3) will be true, and norm(Vector(0,1E-13)) will equal 0. The two main portions of the parser (the Parser and Value packages) now share a common context object for configuration purposes.

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Make Parser work with PGauxiliaryFunctions.pl, and add the macro files needed to initialize the parser.

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merged changes from rel-2-1-a1 -- stop using that branch.

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