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1 : sh002i 1050
2 : apizer 1080
3 : sh002i 1050 # This file provided the fundamental macros for the pg language
4 :     # These macros define the interface between the problems written by
5 :     # the professor and the processing which occurs in the script
6 :     # processProblem.pl
7 :    
8 :    
9 :     BEGIN {
10 :     be_strict();
11 :     }
12 :    
13 :     sub _PG_init{
14 :    
15 :     }
16 :    
17 :     #package PG;
18 :    
19 :    
20 :     =head1 NAME
21 :    
22 :     PG.pl --- located in the courseScripts directory.
23 :     Defines the Program Generating language at the most basic level.
24 :    
25 :     =head1 SYNPOSIS
26 :    
27 :     The basic PG problem structure:
28 :    
29 :     DOCUMENT(); # should be the first statment in the problem
30 :     loadMacros(.....); # (optional) load other macro files if needed.
31 :     # (loadMacros is defined in F<dangerousMacros.pl>)
32 :    
33 :     HEADER_TEXT(...); # (optional) used only for inserting javaScript into problems.
34 :    
35 :     # # insert text of problems
36 :     TEXT("Problem text to be",
37 :     "displayed. Enter 1 in this blank:",
38 :     ANS_RULE(1,30) # ANS_RULE() defines an answer blank 30 characters long.
39 :     # It is defined in F<PGbasicmacros.pl>
40 :     );
41 :    
42 :    
43 :     ANS( answer_evalutors); # see F<PGanswermacros.pl> for examples of answer evaluatiors.
44 :    
45 :     ENDDOCUMENT() # must be the last statement in the problem
46 :    
47 :    
48 :    
49 :     =head1 DESCRIPTION
50 :    
51 :     As described in the synopsis, this file and the macros C<DOCUMENT()> and C<ENDDOCUMENT()> determine
52 :     the interface between problems written in the PG language and the rest of B<WeBWorK>, in particular
53 :     the subroutine C<createPGtext(()> in the file F<translate.pl>.
54 :    
55 :     C<DOCUMENT()> must be the first statement in each problem template.
56 :     It initializes variables,
57 :     in particular all of the contents of the
58 :     environment variable become defined in the problem enviroment.
59 :     (See
60 :     L</webwork_system_html/docs/techdescription/pglanguage/PGenvironment.html>)
61 :    
62 :     ENDDOCUMENT() must the last executable statement in any problem template. It returns
63 :     the rendered problem, answer evaluators and other flags to the rest of B<WeBWorK>, specificially
64 :     to the routine C<createPGtext()> defined in F<translate.pl>
65 :    
66 :    
67 :     The C<HEADER_TEXT()>, C<TEXT()>, and C<ANS()> functions load the
68 :     header text string, the problem text string.
69 :     and the answer evaulator queue respectively.
70 :    
71 :    
72 :     =cut
73 :    
74 :    
75 :     # Private variables for the PG.pl file.
76 :    
77 :     my ($STRINGforOUTPUT, $STRINGforHEADER_TEXT, @PG_ANSWERS, @PG_UNLABELED_ANSWERS);
78 :     my %PG_ANSWERS_HASH ;
79 :    
80 :     # DOCUMENT must come early in every .pg file, before any answers or text are
81 :     # defined. It initializes the variables.
82 :     # It can appear only once.
83 :    
84 :     =head2 DOCUMENT()
85 :    
86 :     C<DOCUMENT()> must be the first statement in each problem template. It can
87 :     only be used once in each problem.
88 :    
89 :     C<DOCUMENT()> initializes some empty variables and via C<INITIALIZE_PG()> unpacks the
90 :     variables in the C<%envir> variable which is implicitly passed to the problem. It must
91 :     be the first statement in any problem template. It
92 :     also unpacks any answers submitted and places them in the C<@submittedAnswer> list,
93 :     saves the problem seed in C<$PG_original_problemSeed> in case you need it later, and
94 :     initializes the pseudo random number generator object in C<$PG_random_generator>.
95 :    
96 :     You can reset the standard number generator using the command:
97 :    
98 :     $PG_random_generator->srand($new_seed_value);
99 :    
100 :     (See also C<SRAND> in the L<PGbasicmacros.pl> file.)
101 :    
102 :     The
103 :     environment variable contents is defined in
104 :     L</webwork_system_html/docs/techdescription/pglanguage/PGenvironment.html>
105 :    
106 :    
107 :     =cut
108 :    
109 :     sub DOCUMENT {
110 :     $STRINGforOUTPUT ="";
111 :     $STRINGforHEADER_TEXT ="";
112 :     @PG_ANSWERS=();
113 :     @main::PG_ANSWER_ENTRY_ORDER = ();
114 :     @PG_UNLABELED_ANSWERS = ();
115 :     %PG_ANSWERS_HASH = ();
116 :     $main::ANSWER_PREFIX = 'AnSwEr';
117 :     %main::PG_FLAGS=(); #global flags
118 :     $main::showPartialCorrectAnswers = 0 unless defined($main::showPartialCorrectAnswers );
119 :     $main::showHint = 1 unless defined($main::showHint);
120 :     $main::solutionExists =0;
121 :     $main::hintExists =0;
122 :     %main::gifs_created = ();
123 :    
124 :     die "The environment variable envir has not been defined" unless defined(%main::envir);
125 :    
126 :     foreach my $var ( keys %main::envir ) {
127 :     eval("\$main::$var =\$main::envir{'$var'}");
128 :     warn "Problem defining ", q{\$main::$var}, " while inititializing the PG problem: $@" if $@;
129 :     }
130 :     @main::submittedAnswers = @{$main::refSubmittedAnswers} if defined($main::refSubmittedAnswers);
131 :     $main::PG_original_problemSeed = $main::problemSeed;
132 :     $main::PG_random_generator = new PGrandom($main::problemSeed) || die "Can't create random number generator.";
133 :     $main::ans_rule_count = 0; # counts questions
134 :    
135 :     # end unpacking of environment variables.
136 :     }
137 :    
138 :     # HEADER_TEXT is for material which is destined to be placed in the header of the html problem -- such
139 :     # as javaScript code.
140 :    
141 :     =head2 HEADER_TEXT()
142 :    
143 :    
144 :     HEADER_TEXT("string1", "string2", "string3");
145 :    
146 :     The C<HEADER_TEXT()>
147 :     function concatenates its arguments and places them in the output
148 :     header text string. It is used for material which is destined to be placed in
149 :     the header of the html problem -- such as javaScript code.
150 :     It can be used more than once in a file.
151 :    
152 :    
153 :     =cut
154 :    
155 :     sub HEADER_TEXT {
156 :     my @in = @_;
157 :     $STRINGforHEADER_TEXT .= join(" ",@in);
158 :     }
159 :    
160 :     # TEXT is the function which defines text which will appear in the problem.
161 :     # All text must be an argument to this function. Any other statements
162 :     # are calculations (done in perl) which will not directly appear in the
163 :     # output. Think of this as the "print" function for the .pg language.
164 :     # It can be used more than once in a file.
165 :    
166 :     =head2 TEXT()
167 :    
168 :     TEXT("string1", "string2", "string3");
169 :    
170 :     The C<TEXT()> function concatenates its arguments and places them in the output
171 :     text string. C<TEXT()> is the function which defines text which will appear in the problem.
172 :     All text must be an argument to this function. Any other statements
173 :     are calculations (done in perl) which will not directly appear in the
174 :     output. Think of this as the "print" function for the .pg language.
175 :     It can be used more than once in a file.
176 :    
177 :     =cut
178 :    
179 :     sub TEXT {
180 :     my @in = @_;
181 :     $STRINGforOUTPUT .= join(" ",@in);
182 :     }
183 :    
184 :    
185 :    
186 :     =head2 ANS()
187 :    
188 :     ANS(answer_evaluator1, answer_evaluator2, answer_evaluator3,...)
189 :    
190 :     Places the answer evaluators in the unlabeled answer_evaluator queue. They will be paired
191 :     with unlabeled answer rules (answer entry blanks) in the order entered. This is the standard
192 :     method for entering answers.
193 :    
194 :     LABELED_ANS(answer_evaluater_name1, answer_evaluator1, answer_evaluater_name2,answer_evaluator2,...)
195 :    
196 :     Places the answer evaluators in the labeled answer_evaluator hash. This allows pairing of
197 :     labeled answer evaluators and labeled answer rules which may not have been entered in the same
198 :     order.
199 :    
200 :     =cut
201 :    
202 :     sub ANS{ # store answer evaluators which have not been explicitly labeled
203 :     my @in = @_;
204 :     while (@in ) {
205 :     warn("<BR><B>Error in ANS:$in[0]</B> -- inputs must be references to
206 :     subroutines<BR>")
207 :     unless ref($in[0]);
208 :     push(@PG_ANSWERS, shift @in );
209 :     }
210 :     }
211 :     sub LABELED_ANS { #a better alias for NAMED_ANS
212 :     &NAMED_ANS;
213 :     }
214 :    
215 :     sub NAMED_ANS{ # store answer evaluators which have been explicitly labeled (submitted in a hash)
216 :     my @in = @_;
217 :     while (@in ) {
218 :     my $label = shift @in;
219 :     my $ans_eval = shift @in;
220 :     TEXT("<BR><B>Error in NAMED_ANS:$in[0]</B>
221 :     -- inputs must be references to subroutines<BR>")
222 :     unless ref($ans_eval);
223 :     $PG_ANSWERS_HASH{$label}= $ans_eval;
224 :     }
225 :     }
226 :     sub RECORD_ANS_NAME { # this maintains the order in which the answer rules are printed.
227 :     my $label = shift;
228 :     push(@main::PG_ANSWER_ENTRY_ORDER, $label);
229 :     $label;
230 :     }
231 :    
232 :     sub NEW_ANS_NAME { # this keeps track of the answers which are entered implicitly,
233 :     # rather than with a specific label
234 :     my $number=shift;
235 :     my $label = "$main::ANSWER_PREFIX$number";
236 :     push(@PG_UNLABELED_ANSWERS,$label);
237 :     $label;
238 :     }
239 :     sub ANS_NUM_TO_NAME { # This converts a number to an answer label for use in
240 :     # radio button and check box answers. No new answer
241 :     # name is recorded.
242 :     my $number=shift;
243 :     my $label = "$main::ANSWER_PREFIX$number";
244 :     $label;
245 :     }
246 :    
247 :     # ENDDOCUMENT must come at the end of every .pg file.
248 :     # It exports the resulting text of the problem, the text to be used in HTML header material
249 :     # (for javaScript), the list of answer evaluators and any other flags. It can appear only once and
250 :     # it MUST be the last statement in the problem.
251 :    
252 :     =head2 ENDDOCUMENT()
253 :    
254 :     ENDDOCUMENT() must the last executable statement in any problem template. It can
255 :     only appear once. It returns
256 :     an array consisting of
257 :    
258 :     A reference to a string containing the rendered text of the problem.
259 :     A reference to a string containing text to be placed in the header
260 :     (for javaScript)
261 :     A reference to the array containing the answer evaluators.
262 :     (May be changed to a hash soon.)
263 :     A reference to an associative array (hash) containing various flags.
264 :    
265 :     The following flags are set by ENDDOCUMENT:
266 :     (1) showPartialCorrectAnswers -- determines whether students are told which
267 :     of their answers in a problem are wrong.
268 :     (2) recordSubmittedAnswers -- determines whether students submitted answers
269 :     are saved.
270 :     (3) refreshCachedImages -- determines whether the cached image of the problem
271 :     in typeset mode is always refreshed (i.e. setting this to 1 means cached
272 :     images are not used).
273 :     (4) solutionExits -- indicates the existence of a solution.
274 :     (5) hintExits -- indicates the existence of a hint.
275 :     (6) showHintLimit -- determines the number of attempts after which hint(s) will be shown
276 :    
277 :     (7) PROBLEM_GRADER_TO_USE -- chooses the problem grader to be used in this order
278 :     (a) A problem grader specified by the problem using:
279 :     install_problem_grader(\&grader);
280 :     (b) One of the standard problem graders defined in PGanswermacros.pl when set to
281 :     'std_problem_grader' or 'avg_problem_grader' by the environment variable
282 :     $PG_environment{PROBLEM_GRADER_TO_USE}
283 :     (c) A subroutine referenced by $PG_environment{PROBLEM_GRADER_TO_USE}
284 :     (d) The default &std_problem_grader defined in PGanswermacros.pl
285 :    
286 :    
287 :     =cut
288 :    
289 :     sub ENDDOCUMENT {
290 :    
291 :     my $index=0;
292 :     foreach my $label (@PG_UNLABELED_ANSWERS) {
293 :     if ( defined($PG_ANSWERS[$index]) ) {
294 :     $PG_ANSWERS_HASH{"$label"}= $PG_ANSWERS[$index];
295 :     } else {
296 :     warn "No answer provided by instructor for answer $label";
297 :     }
298 :     $index++;
299 :     }
300 :    
301 :     $STRINGforOUTPUT .="\n";
302 :     ##eval q{ #make sure that "main" points to the current safe compartment by evaluating these lines.
303 :     $main::PG_FLAGS{'showPartialCorrectAnswers'} = $main::showPartialCorrectAnswers;
304 :     $main::PG_FLAGS{'recordSubmittedAnswers'} = $main::recordSubmittedAnswers;
305 :     $main::PG_FLAGS{'refreshCachedImages'} = $main::refreshCachedImages;
306 :     $main::PG_FLAGS{'hintExists'} = $main::hintExists;
307 :     $main::PG_FLAGS{'showHintLimit'} = $main::showHint;
308 :     $main::PG_FLAGS{'solutionExists'} = $main::solutionExists;
309 :     $main::PG_FLAGS{ANSWER_ENTRY_ORDER} = \@main::PG_ANSWER_ENTRY_ORDER;
310 :     $main::PG_FLAGS{ANSWER_PREFIX} = $main::ANSWER_PREFIX;
311 :     # install problem grader
312 :     if (defined($main::PG_FLAGS{PROBLEM_GRADER_TO_USE}) ) {
313 :     # problem grader defined within problem -- no further action needed
314 :     } elsif ( defined( $main::envir{PROBLEM_GRADER_TO_USE} ) ) {
315 :     if (ref($main::envir{PROBLEM_GRADER_TO_USE}) eq 'CODE' ) { # user defined grader
316 :     $main::PG_FLAGS{PROBLEM_GRADER_TO_USE} = $main::envir{PROBLEM_GRADER_TO_USE};
317 :     } elsif ($main::envir{PROBLEM_GRADER_TO_USE} eq 'std_problem_grader' ) {
318 :     if (defined(&std_problem_grader) ){
319 :     $main::PG_FLAGS{PROBLEM_GRADER_TO_USE} = \&std_problem_grader; # defined in PGanswermacros.pl
320 :     } # std_problem_grader is the default in any case so don't give a warning.
321 :     } elsif ($main::envir{PROBLEM_GRADER_TO_USE} eq 'avg_problem_grader' ) {
322 :     if (defined(&avg_problem_grader) ){
323 :     $main::PG_FLAGS{PROBLEM_GRADER_TO_USE} = \&avg_problem_grader; # defined in PGanswermacros.pl
324 :     }
325 :     #else { # avg_problem_grader will be installed by PGtranslator so there is no need for a warning.
326 :     # warn "The problem grader 'avg_problem_grader' has not been defined. Has PGanswermacros.pl been loaded?";
327 :     #}
328 :     } else {
329 :     warn "Error: $main::PG_FLAGS{PROBLEM_GRADER_TO_USE} is not a known program grader.";
330 :     }
331 :     } elsif (defined(&std_problem_grader)) {
332 :     $main::PG_FLAGS{PROBLEM_GRADER_TO_USE} = \&std_problem_grader; # defined in PGanswermacros.pl
333 :     } else {
334 :     # PGtranslator will install its default problem grader
335 :     }
336 :     ##};
337 :     warn "ERROR: The problem grader is not a subroutine" unless ref( $main::PG_FLAGS{PROBLEM_GRADER_TO_USE}) eq 'CODE'
338 :     or $main::PG_FLAGS{PROBLEM_GRADER_TO_USE} = 'std_problem_grader'
339 :     or $main::PG_FLAGS{PROBLEM_GRADER_TO_USE} = 'avg_problem_grader';
340 :     # return results
341 :     (\$STRINGforOUTPUT, \$STRINGforHEADER_TEXT,\%PG_ANSWERS_HASH,\%main::PG_FLAGS);
342 :     }
343 :    
344 :    
345 :    
346 :     =head2 INITIALIZE_PG()
347 :    
348 :     This is executed each C<DOCUMENT()> is called. For backward compatibility
349 :     C<loadMacros> also checks whether the C<macroDirectory> has been defined
350 :     and if not, it runs C<INITIALIZE_PG()> and issues a warning.
351 :    
352 :     =cut
353 :    
354 :    
355 :     1;

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