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1 : sh002i 1050
2 : apizer 1080
3 : sh002i 1050 ####################################################################
4 :     # Copyright @ 1995-1998 University of Rochester
5 :     # All Rights Reserved
6 :     ####################################################################
7 :    
8 :     =head1 NAME
9 :    
10 :     PGbasicmacros.pl --- located in the courseScripts directory
11 :    
12 :     =head1 SYNPOSIS
13 :    
14 :    
15 :    
16 :     =head1 DESCRIPTION
17 :    
18 :    
19 :    
20 :     =cut
21 :    
22 :     # this is equivalent to use strict, but can be used within the Safe compartment.
23 :     BEGIN{
24 : gage 1251 main::be_strict;
25 : sh002i 1050 }
26 :    
27 :    
28 : gage 1251 my $displayMode;
29 : sh002i 1050
30 :     my ($PAR,
31 :     $BR,
32 :     $LQ,
33 :     $RQ,
34 :     $BM,
35 :     $EM,
36 :     $BDM,
37 :     $EDM,
38 :     $LTS,
39 :     $GTS,
40 :     $LTE,
41 :     $GTE,
42 :     $BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN,
43 :     $END_ONE_COLUMN,
44 :     $SOL,
45 :     $SOLUTION,
46 :     $HINT,
47 :     $US,
48 :     $SPACE,
49 :     $BBOLD,
50 : apizer 1080 $EBOLD,
51 : sh002i 1050 $BITALIC,
52 :     $EITALIC,
53 :     $BCENTER,
54 :     $ECENTER,
55 :     $HR,
56 :     $LBRACE,
57 :     $RBRACE,
58 :     $LB,
59 :     $RB,
60 :     $DOLLAR,
61 :     $PERCENT,
62 :     $CARET,
63 :     $PI,
64 :     $E,
65 :     @ALPHABET,
66 : gage 1251 $envir,
67 : gage 1253 $PG_random_generator,
68 : sh002i 1050 );
69 :    
70 :     sub _PGbasicmacros_init {
71 : gage 1251
72 :     # The big problem is that at compile time in the cached Safe compartment
73 :     # main:: has one definition, probably Safe::Root1::
74 :     # At runtime main has another definition Safe::Rootx:: where x is > 1
75 :    
76 :     # It is important to
77 :     # initialize the my variable version of $displayMode from the "runtime" version
78 :     # of main::displayMode
79 :    
80 :     $displayMode = main::PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::displayMode!);
81 :    
82 :     # This is initializes the remaining variables in the runtime main:: compartment.
83 :    
84 :     main::PG_restricted_eval( <<'EndOfFile');
85 :     $displayMode = $main::displayMode;
86 :    
87 : sh002i 1050 $main::PAR = PAR();
88 :     $main::BR = BR();
89 :     $main::LQ = LQ();
90 :     $main::RQ = RQ();
91 :     $main::BM = BM();
92 :     $main::EM = EM();
93 :     $main::BDM = BDM();
94 :     $main::EDM = EDM();
95 :     $main::LTS = LTS();
96 :     $main::GTS = GTS();
97 :     $main::LTE = LTE();
98 :     $main::GTE = GTE();
99 :     $main::BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN = BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN();
100 :     $main::END_ONE_COLUMN = END_ONE_COLUMN();
101 :     $main::SOL = SOLUTION_HEADING();
102 :     $main::SOLUTION = SOLUTION_HEADING();
103 :     $main::HINT = HINT_HEADING();
104 :     $main::US = US();
105 :     $main::SPACE = SPACE();
106 :     $main::BBOLD = BBOLD();
107 : apizer 1080 $main::EBOLD = EBOLD();
108 : sh002i 1050 $main::BITALIC = BITALIC();
109 :     $main::EITALIC = EITALIC();
110 :     $main::BCENTER = BCENTER();
111 :     $main::ECENTER = ECENTER();
112 :     $main::HR = HR();
113 :     $main::LBRACE = LBRACE();
114 :     $main::RBRACE = RBRACE();
115 :     $main::LB = LB();
116 :     $main::RB = RB();
117 :     $main::DOLLAR = DOLLAR();
118 :     $main::PERCENT = PERCENT();
119 :     $main::CARET = CARET();
120 :     $main::PI = PI();
121 :     $main::E = E();
122 :     @main::ALPHABET = ('A'..'ZZ');
123 : apizer 1080
124 : gage 1251
125 :    
126 :     EndOfFile
127 :    
128 :     # Next we transfer the correct definitions in the main:: compartment to the local my variables
129 :     # This can't be done inside the eval above because my variables seem to be invisible inside the eval
130 :    
131 :    
132 :     $PAR = $main::PAR;
133 :     $BR = $main::BR;
134 :     $LQ = $main::LQ;
135 :     $RQ = $main::RQ;
136 :     $BM = $main::BM;
137 :     $EM = $main::EM;
138 :     $BDM = $main::BDM;
139 :     $EDM = $main::EDM;
140 :     $LTS = $main::LTS;
141 :     $GTS = $main::GTS;
142 :     $LTE = $main::LTE;
143 :     $GTE = $main::GTE;
144 :     $BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN = $main::BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN;
145 :     $END_ONE_COLUMN = $main::END_ONE_COLUMN;
146 :     $SOL = $main::SOLUTION_HEADING;
147 :     $SOLUTION = $main::SOLUTION_HEADING;
148 :     $HINT = $main::HINT_HEADING;
149 :     $US = $main::US;
150 :     $SPACE = $main::SPACE;
151 :     $BBOLD = $main::BBOLD;
152 :     $EBOLD = $main::EBOLD;
153 :     $HR = $main::HR;
154 :     $LBRACE = $main::LBRACE;
155 :     $RBRACE = $main::RBRACE;
156 :     $LB = $main::LB;
157 :     $RB = $main::RB;
158 :     $DOLLAR = $main::DOLLAR;
159 :     $PERCENT = $main::PERCENT;
160 :     $CARET = $main::CARET;
161 :     $PI = $main::PI;
162 :     $E = $main::E;
163 : sh002i 1050 @ALPHABET = ('A'..'ZZ');
164 :    
165 : gage 1251 # We initialize a local reference to the environment hash rather than transfer the entire hash
166 :     # This way is slightly more efficient.
167 : apizer 1080
168 : gage 1253 $envir = PG_restricted_eval(q!\%main::envir!);
169 :     $PG_random_generator = PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::PG_random_generator!);
170 : gage 1251
171 : sh002i 1050 }
172 :    
173 :     =head2 Answer blank macros:
174 :    
175 :     These produce answer blanks of various sizes or pop up lists or radio answer buttons.
176 :     The names for the answer blanks are
177 :     generated implicitly.
178 :    
179 :     ans_rule( width )
180 :     tex_ans_rule( width )
181 :     ans_radio_buttons(value1=>label1, value2,label2 => value3,label3=>...)
182 :     pop_up_list(@list) # list consists of (value => label, PR => "Product rule",...)
183 :    
184 :     To indicate the checked position of radio buttons put a '%' in front of the value: C<ans_radio_buttons(1, 'Yes','%2','No')>
185 :     will have 'No' checked. C<tex_ans_rule> works inside math equations in C<HTML_tth> mode. It does not work in C<Latex2HTML> mode
186 :     since this mode produces gif pictures.
187 :    
188 :    
189 :     The following method is defined in F<PG.pl> for entering the answer evaluators corresponding
190 :     to answer rules with automatically generated names. The answer evaluators are matched with the
191 :     answer rules in the order in which they appear on the page.
192 :    
193 :     ANS(ans_evaluator1, ans_evaluator2,...);
194 :    
195 :     These are more primitive macros which produce answer blanks for specialized cases when complete
196 :     control over the matching of answers blanks and answer evaluators is desired.
197 :     The names of the answer blanks must be generated manually, and it is best if they do NOT begin
198 :     with the default answer prefix (currently AnSwEr).
199 :    
200 :     labeled_ans_rule(name, width) # an alias for NAMED_ANS_RULE where width defaults to 20 if omitted.
201 :    
202 :     NAMED_ANS_RULE(name, width)
203 :     NAMED_ANS_BOX(name, rows, cols)
204 :     NAMED_ANS_RADIO(name, value,label,)
205 :     NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION(name, value,label)
206 :     NAMED_ANS_RADIO_BUTTONS(name,value1,label1,value2,label2,...)
207 :     check_box('-name' =>answer5,'-value' =>'statement3','-label' =>'I loved this course!' )
208 :     NAMED_POP_UP_LIST($name, @list) # list consists of (value => tag, PR => "Product rule",...)
209 :    
210 :     (Name is the name of the variable, value is the value given to the variable when this option is selected,
211 :     and label is the text printed next to the button or check box. Check box variables can have multiple values.)
212 :    
213 :     NAMED_ANS_RADIO_BUTTONS creates a sequence of NAMED_ANS_RADIO and NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION items which
214 :     are output either as an array or, in scalar context, as the array glued together with spaces. It is
215 :     usually easier to use this than to manually construct the radio buttons by hand. However, sometimes
216 :     extra flexibility is desiredin which case:
217 :    
218 :     When entering radio buttons using the "NAMED" format, you should use NAMED_ANS_RADIO button for the first button
219 :     and then use NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION for the remaining buttons. NAMED_ANS_RADIO requires a matching answer evalutor,
220 :     while NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION does not. The name used for NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION should match the name
221 :     used for NAMED_ANS_RADIO (and the associated answer evaluator).
222 :    
223 :    
224 :     The following method is defined in F<PG.pl> for entering the answer evaluators corresponding
225 :     to answer rules with automatically generated names. The answer evaluators are matched with the
226 :     answer rules in the order in which they appear on the page.
227 :    
228 :     NAMED_ANS(name1 => ans_evaluator1, name2 => ans_evaluator2,...);
229 :    
230 :     These auxiliary macros are defined in PG.pl
231 :    
232 :    
233 :     NEW_ANS_NAME( number ); # produces a new answer blank name from a number by adding a prefix (AnSwEr)
234 :     # and registers this name as an implicitly labeled answer
235 :     # Its use is paired with each answer evaluator being entered using ANS()
236 :    
237 :     ANS_NUM_TO_NAME(number); # adds the prefix (AnSwEr) to the number, but does nothing else.
238 :    
239 :     RECORD_ANS_NAME( name ); # records the order in which the answer blank is rendered
240 :     # This is called by all of the constructs above, but must
241 :     # be called explicitly if an input blank is constructed explictly
242 :     # using HTML code.
243 :    
244 :     These are legacy macros:
245 :    
246 :     ANS_RULE( number, width ); # equivalent to NAMED_ANS_RULE( NEW_ANS_NAME(number), width)
247 :     ANS_BOX( question_number,height, width ); # equivalent to NAMED_ANS_BOX( NEW_ANS_NAME(number), height, width)
248 :     ANS_RADIO( question_number, value,tag ); # equivalent to NAMED_ANS_RADIO( NEW_ANS_NAME(number), value,tag)
249 :     ANS_RADIO_OPTION( question_number, value,tag ); # equivalent to NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION( ANS_NUM_TO_NAME(number), value,tag)
250 :    
251 :    
252 :     =cut
253 :    
254 :     sub labeled_ans_rule { # syntactic sugar for NAMED_ANS_RULE
255 :     my($name,$col) = @_;
256 :     $col = 20 unless defined($col);
257 :     NAMED_ANS_RULE($name,$col);
258 :     }
259 :    
260 :     sub NAMED_ANS_RULE {
261 :     my($name,$col) = @_;
262 :     my $len = 0.07*$col;
263 :     my $answer_value = '';
264 :     $answer_value = ${$main::inputs_ref}{$name} if defined(${$main::inputs_ref}{$name});
265 :     if ($answer_value =~ /\0/ ) {
266 :     my @answers = split("\0", $answer_value);
267 :     $answer_value = shift(@answers); # use up the first answer
268 :     $main::rh_sticky_answers{$name}=\@answers; # store the rest
269 :     $answer_value= '' unless defined($answer_value);
270 :     } elsif (ref($answer_value) eq 'ARRAY') {
271 :     my @answers = @{ $answer_value};
272 :     $answer_value = shift(@answers); # use up the first answer
273 :     $main::rh_sticky_answers{$name}=\@answers; # store the rest
274 :     $answer_value= '' unless defined($answer_value);
275 : apizer 1080 }
276 :    
277 : sh002i 1050 $answer_value =~ tr/$@`//d; ## make sure student answers can not be interpolated by e.g. EV3
278 :     $name = RECORD_ANS_NAME($name);
279 :     MODES(
280 :     TeX => "\\mbox{\\parbox[t]{10pt}{\\hrulefill}}\\hrulefill\\quad ",
281 :     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME=\"$name\" VALUE = \"\">\n\\end{rawhtml}\n!,
282 :     HTML => "<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME=\"$name\" VALUE = \"$answer_value\">\n"
283 :     );
284 :     }
285 :    
286 :     sub NAMED_ANS_RULE_OPTION { # deprecated
287 :     &NAMED_ANS_RULE_EXTENSION;
288 :     }
289 :    
290 :     sub NAMED_ANS_RULE_EXTENSION {
291 :     my($name,$col) = @_;
292 :     my $len = 0.07*$col;
293 :     my $answer_value = '';
294 :     $answer_value = ${$main::inputs_ref}{$name} if defined(${$main::inputs_ref}{$name});
295 :     if ( defined($main::rh_sticky_answers{$name}) ) {
296 :     $answer_value = shift( @{$main::rh_sticky_answers{$name}});
297 :     $answer_value = '' unless defined($answer_value);
298 :     }
299 :     $answer_value =~ tr/$@//d; ## make sure student answers can not be interpolated by e.g. EV3
300 :     MODES(
301 :     TeX => '\\hrulefill\\quad ',
302 :     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME=\"$name\" VALUE = \"\">\n\\end{rawhtml}\n!,
303 :     HTML => qq!<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME = "$name" VALUE = "$answer_value">\n!
304 :     );
305 :     }
306 :    
307 :     sub ANS_RULE { #deprecated
308 :     my($number,$col) = @_;
309 :     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME($number);
310 :     NAMED_ANS_RULE($name,$col);
311 :     }
312 :    
313 :    
314 :     sub NAMED_ANS_BOX {
315 :     my($name,$row,$col) = @_;
316 :     $row = 10 unless defined($row);
317 :     $col = 80 unless defined($col);
318 :     $name = RECORD_ANS_NAME($name);
319 :     my $len = 0.07*$col;
320 :     my $height = .07*$row;
321 :     my $answer_value = '';
322 :     $answer_value = $main::inputs_ref->{$name} if defined( $main::inputs_ref->{$name} );
323 :     $answer_value =~ tr/$@//d; ## make sure student answers can not be interpolated by e.g. EV3
324 :     my $out = M3(
325 :     qq!\\vskip $height in \\hrulefill\\quad !,
326 :     qq!\\begin{rawhtml}<TEXTAREA NAME="$name" ROWS="$row" COLS="$col"
327 :     WRAP="VIRTUAL">$answer_value</TEXTAREA>\\end{rawhtml}!,
328 :     qq!<TEXTAREA NAME="$name" ROWS="$row" COLS="$col"
329 :     WRAP="VIRTUAL">$answer_value</TEXTAREA>!
330 :     );
331 :     $out;
332 :     }
333 :    
334 :     sub ANS_BOX { #deprecated
335 :     my($number,$row,$col) = @_;
336 :     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME($number);
337 :     NAMED_ANS_BOX($name,$row,$col);
338 :     }
339 :    
340 :     sub NAMED_ANS_RADIO {
341 :     my $name = shift;
342 :     my $value = shift;
343 :     my $tag =shift;
344 :     $name = RECORD_ANS_NAME($name);
345 :     my $checked = '';
346 :     if ($value =~/^\%/) {
347 :     $value =~ s/^\%//;
348 :     $checked = 'CHECKED'
349 :     }
350 :     if (defined($main::inputs_ref->{$name}) ) {
351 :     if ($main::inputs_ref->{$name} eq $value) {
352 :     $checked = 'CHECKED'
353 :     } else {
354 :     $checked = '';
355 :     }
356 :    
357 :     }
358 :    
359 :     MODES(
360 :     TeX => qq!\\item{$tag}\n!,
361 :     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=RADIO NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>\\end{rawhtml}$tag!,
362 :     HTML => qq!<INPUT TYPE=RADIO NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>$tag!
363 :     );
364 :    
365 :     }
366 :    
367 :     sub NAMED_ANS_RADIO_OPTION { #deprecated
368 :     &NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION;
369 :     }
370 :    
371 :     sub NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION {
372 :     my $name = shift;
373 :     my $value = shift;
374 :     my $tag =shift;
375 :    
376 :    
377 :     my $checked = '';
378 :     if ($value =~/^\%/) {
379 :     $value =~ s/^\%//;
380 :     $checked = 'CHECKED'
381 :     }
382 :     if (defined($main::inputs_ref->{$name}) ) {
383 :     if ($main::inputs_ref->{$name} eq $value) {
384 :     $checked = 'CHECKED'
385 :     } else {
386 :     $checked = '';
387 :     }
388 :    
389 :     }
390 :    
391 :     MODES(
392 :     TeX => qq!\\item{$tag}\n!,
393 :     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=RADIO NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>\\end{rawhtml}$tag!,
394 :     HTML => qq!<INPUT TYPE=RADIO NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>$tag!
395 :     );
396 :    
397 :     }
398 :    
399 :     sub NAMED_ANS_RADIO_BUTTONS {
400 :     my $name =shift;
401 :     my $value = shift;
402 :     my $tag = shift;
403 :    
404 :    
405 :     my @out = ();
406 :     push(@out, NAMED_ANS_RADIO($name, $value,$tag));
407 :     my @buttons = @_;
408 :     while (@buttons) {
409 :     $value = shift @buttons; $tag = shift @buttons;
410 :     push(@out, NAMED_ANS_RADIO_OPTION($name, $value,$tag));
411 :     }
412 :     (wantarray) ? @out : join(" ",@out);
413 :     }
414 :     sub ANS_RADIO {
415 :     my $number = shift;
416 :     my $value = shift;
417 :     my $tag =shift;
418 :     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME($number);
419 :     NAMED_ANS_RADIO($name,$value,$tag);
420 :     }
421 :    
422 :     sub ANS_RADIO_OPTION {
423 :     my $number = shift;
424 :     my $value = shift;
425 :     my $tag =shift;
426 :    
427 :    
428 :     my $name = ANS_NUM_TO_NAME($number);
429 :     NAMED_ANS_RADIO_OPTION($name,$value,$tag);
430 :     }
431 :     sub ANS_RADIO_BUTTONS {
432 :     my $number =shift;
433 :     my $value = shift;
434 :     my $tag = shift;
435 :    
436 :    
437 :     my @out = ();
438 :     push(@out, ANS_RADIO($number, $value,$tag));
439 :     my @buttons = @_;
440 :     while (@buttons) {
441 :     $value = shift @buttons; $tag = shift @buttons;
442 :     push(@out, ANS_RADIO_OPTION($number, $value,$tag));
443 :     }
444 :     (wantarray) ? @out : join(" ",@out);
445 :     }
446 :    
447 :     sub NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX {
448 :     my $name = shift;
449 :     my $value = shift;
450 :     my $tag =shift;
451 :     $name = RECORD_ANS_NAME($name);
452 :    
453 :     my $checked = '';
454 :     if ($value =~/^\%/) {
455 :     $value =~ s/^\%//;
456 :     $checked = 'CHECKED'
457 :     }
458 :    
459 :     if (defined($main::inputs_ref->{$name}) ) {
460 :     if ($main::inputs_ref->{$name} eq $value) {
461 :     $checked = 'CHECKED'
462 :     }
463 :     else {
464 :     $checked = '';
465 :     }
466 :    
467 :     }
468 :    
469 :     MODES(
470 :     TeX => qq!\\item{$tag}\n!,
471 :     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=CHECKBOX NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>\\end{rawhtml}$tag!,
472 :     HTML => qq!<INPUT TYPE=CHECKBOX NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>$tag!
473 :     );
474 :    
475 :     }
476 :    
477 :     sub NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX_OPTION {
478 :     my $name = shift;
479 :     my $value = shift;
480 :     my $tag =shift;
481 :    
482 :     my $checked = '';
483 :     if ($value =~/^\%/) {
484 :     $value =~ s/^\%//;
485 :     $checked = 'CHECKED'
486 :     }
487 :    
488 :     if (defined($main::inputs_ref->{$name}) ) {
489 :     if ($main::inputs_ref->{$name} eq $value) {
490 :     $checked = 'CHECKED'
491 :     }
492 :     else {
493 :     $checked = '';
494 :     }
495 :    
496 :     }
497 :    
498 :     MODES(
499 :     TeX => qq!\\item{$tag}\n!,
500 :     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=CHECKBOX NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>\\end{rawhtml}$tag!,
501 :     HTML => qq!<INPUT TYPE=CHECKBOX NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>$tag!
502 :     );
503 :    
504 :     }
505 :    
506 :     sub NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX_BUTTONS {
507 :     my $name =shift;
508 :     my $value = shift;
509 :     my $tag = shift;
510 :    
511 :     my @out = ();
512 :     push(@out, NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX($name, $value,$tag));
513 :    
514 :     my @buttons = @_;
515 :     while (@buttons) {
516 :     $value = shift @buttons; $tag = shift @buttons;
517 :     push(@out, NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX_OPTION($name, $value,$tag));
518 :     }
519 :    
520 :     (wantarray) ? @out : join(" ",@out);
521 :     }
522 :    
523 :     sub ANS_CHECKBOX {
524 :     my $number = shift;
525 :     my $value = shift;
526 :     my $tag =shift;
527 :     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME($number);
528 :    
529 :     NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX($name,$value,$tag);
530 :     }
531 :    
532 :     sub ANS_CHECKBOX_OPTION {
533 :     my $number = shift;
534 :     my $value = shift;
535 :     my $tag =shift;
536 :     my $name = ANS_NUM_TO_NAME($number);
537 :    
538 :     NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX_OPTION($name,$value,$tag);
539 :     }
540 :    
541 :     sub ANS_CHECKBOX_BUTTONS {
542 :     my $number =shift;
543 :     my $value = shift;
544 :     my $tag = shift;
545 :    
546 :     my @out = ();
547 :     push(@out, ANS_CHECKBOX($number, $value, $tag));
548 :    
549 :     my @buttons = @_;
550 :     while (@buttons) {
551 :     $value = shift @buttons; $tag = shift @buttons;
552 :     push(@out, ANS_CHECKBOX_OPTION($number, $value,$tag));
553 :     }
554 :    
555 :     (wantarray) ? @out : join(" ",@out);
556 :     }
557 :    
558 :     sub ans_rule {
559 :     my $len = shift; # gives the optional length of the answer blank
560 :     $len = 20 unless $len ;
561 :     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME(++$main::ans_rule_count);
562 :     NAMED_ANS_RULE($name ,$len);
563 :     }
564 :     sub ans_rule_extension {
565 :     my $len = shift;
566 :     $len = 20 unless $len ;
567 :     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME($main::ans_rule_count); # don't update the answer name
568 :     NAMED_ANS_RULE($name ,$len);
569 :     }
570 :     sub ans_radio_buttons {
571 :     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME(++$main::ans_rule_count);
572 :     my @radio_buttons = NAMED_ANS_RADIO_BUTTONS($name, @_);
573 :    
574 :     if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
575 :     $radio_buttons[0] = "\n\\begin{itemize}\n" . $radio_buttons[0];
576 :     $radio_buttons[$#radio_buttons] .= "\n\\end{itemize}\n";
577 :     }
578 :    
579 :     (wantarray) ? @radio_buttons: join(" ", @radio_buttons);
580 :     }
581 :    
582 :     #added 6/14/2000 by David Etlinger
583 :     sub ans_checkbox {
584 :     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME( ++$main::ans_rule_count );
585 :     my @checkboxes = NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX_BUTTONS( $name, @_ );
586 :    
587 :     if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
588 :     $checkboxes[0] = "\n\\begin{itemize}\n" . $checkboxes[0];
589 :     $checkboxes[$#checkboxes] .= "\n\\end{itemize}\n";
590 :     }
591 :    
592 :     (wantarray) ? @checkboxes: join(" ", @checkboxes);
593 :     }
594 :    
595 :    
596 :     ## define a version of ans_rule which will work inside TeX math mode or display math mode -- at least for tth mode.
597 :     ## This is great for displayed fractions.
598 :     ## This will not work with latex2HTML mode since it creates gif equations.
599 :    
600 :     sub tex_ans_rule {
601 :     my $len = shift;
602 :     $len = 20 unless $len ;
603 :     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME(++$main::ans_rule_count);
604 :     my $answer_rule = NAMED_ANS_RULE($name ,$len); # we don't want to create three answer rules in different modes.
605 :     my $out = MODES(
606 :     'TeX' => $answer_rule,
607 :     'Latex2HTML' => '\\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
608 :     'HTML_tth' => '\\begin{rawhtml} '. $answer_rule.'\\end{rawhtml}',
609 :     'HTML_dpng' => '\\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
610 :     'HTML' => $answer_rule
611 :     );
612 : apizer 1080
613 : sh002i 1050 $out;
614 :     }
615 :     sub tex_ans_rule_extension {
616 :     my $len = shift;
617 :     $len = 20 unless $len ;
618 :     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME($main::ans_rule_count);
619 :     my $answer_rule = NAMED_ANS_RULE($name ,$len); # we don't want to create three answer rules in different modes.
620 :     my $out = MODES(
621 :     'TeX' => $answer_rule,
622 :     'Latex2HTML' => '\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
623 :     'HTML_tth' => '\\begin{rawhtml} '. $answer_rule.'\\end{rawhtml}',
624 :     'HTML_dpng' => '\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
625 :     'HTML' => $answer_rule
626 :     );
627 : apizer 1080
628 : sh002i 1050 $out;
629 :     }
630 :     # still needs some cleanup.
631 :     sub NAMED_TEX_ANS_RULE {
632 :     my $name = shift;
633 :     my $len = shift;
634 :     $len = 20 unless $len ;
635 :     my $answer_rule = NAMED_ANS_RULE($name ,$len); # we don't want to create three answer rules in different modes.
636 :     my $out = MODES(
637 :     'TeX' => $answer_rule,
638 :     'Latex2HTML' => '\\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
639 :     'HTML_tth' => '\\begin{rawhtml} '. $answer_rule.'\\end{rawhtml}',
640 :     'HTML_dpng' => '\\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
641 :     'HTML' => $answer_rule
642 :     );
643 : apizer 1080
644 : sh002i 1050 $out;
645 :     }
646 :     sub NAMED_TEX_ANS_RULE_EXTENSION {
647 :     my $name = shift;
648 :     my $len = shift;
649 :     $len = 20 unless $len ;
650 :     my $answer_rule = NAMED_ANS_RULE_EXTENSION($name ,$len); # we don't want to create three answer rules in different modes.
651 :     my $out = MODES(
652 :     'TeX' => $answer_rule,
653 :     'Latex2HTML' => '\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
654 :     'HTML_tth' => '\\begin{rawhtml} '. $answer_rule.'\\end{rawhtml}',
655 :     'HTML_dpng' => '\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
656 :     'HTML' => $answer_rule
657 :     );
658 : apizer 1080
659 : sh002i 1050 $out;
660 :     }
661 :     sub ans_box {
662 :     my $row = shift;
663 :     my $col =shift;
664 :     $row = 5 unless $row;
665 :     $col = 80 unless $col;
666 :     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME(++$main::ans_rule_count);
667 :     NAMED_ANS_BOX($name ,$row,$col);
668 :     }
669 :    
670 :     #this is legacy code; use ans_checkbox instead
671 :     sub checkbox {
672 :     my %options = @_;
673 :     qq!<INPUT TYPE="checkbox" NAME="$options{'-name'}" VALUE="$options{'-value'}">$options{'-label'}!
674 :     }
675 :    
676 :    
677 :     sub NAMED_POP_UP_LIST {
678 :     my $name = shift;
679 :     my @list = @_;
680 :     $name = RECORD_ANS_NAME($name); # record answer name
681 :     my $answer_value = '';
682 :     $answer_value = ${$main::inputs_ref}{$name} if defined(${$main::inputs_ref}{$name});
683 :     my $out = "";
684 :     if ($displayMode eq 'HTML' or $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' or
685 :     $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng' or $displayMode eq 'HTML_img') {
686 :     $out = qq!<SELECT NAME = "$name" SIZE=1> \n!;
687 :     my $i;
688 :     foreach ($i=0; $i< @list; $i=$i+2) {
689 :     my $select_flag = ($list[$i] eq $answer_value) ? "SELECTED" : "";
690 :     $out .= qq!<OPTION $select_flag VALUE ="$list[$i]" > $list[$i+1] </OPTION>\n!;
691 :     };
692 :     $out .= " </SELECT>\n";
693 :     } elsif ( $displayMode eq "Latex2HTML") {
694 :     $out = qq! \\begin{rawhtml}<SELECT NAME = "$name" SIZE=1> \\end{rawhtml} \n !;
695 :     my $i;
696 :     foreach ($i=0; $i< @list; $i=$i+2) {
697 :     my $select_flag = ($list[$i] eq $answer_value) ? "SELECTED" : "";
698 :     $out .= qq!\\begin{rawhtml}<OPTION $select_flag VALUE ="$list[$i]" > $list[$i+1] </OPTION>\\end{rawhtml}\n!;
699 :     };
700 :     $out .= " \\begin{rawhtml}</SELECT>\\end{rawhtml}\n";
701 :     } elsif ( $displayMode eq "TeX") {
702 :     $out .= "\\fbox{?}";
703 :     }
704 :    
705 :     }
706 :    
707 :     sub pop_up_list {
708 :     my @list = @_;
709 :     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME(++$main::ans_rule_count); # get new answer name
710 :     NAMED_POP_UP_LIST($name, @list);
711 :     }
712 :    
713 : lr003k 1120
714 :    
715 :     =head5 answer_matrix
716 :    
717 :     Usage \[ \{ answer_matrix(rows,columns,width_of_ans_rule, @options) \} \]
718 :    
719 :     Creates an array of answer blanks and passes it to display_matrix which returns
720 :     text which represents the matrix in TeX format used in math display mode. Answers
721 :     are then passed back to whatever answer evaluators you write at the end of the problem.
722 :     (note, if you have an m x n matrix, you will need mn answer evaluators, and they will be
723 :     returned to the evaluaters starting in the top left hand corner and proceed to the left
724 :     and then at the end moving down one row, just as you would read them.)
725 :    
726 :     The options are passed on to display_matrix.
727 :    
728 :    
729 :     =cut
730 :    
731 :    
732 :     sub answer_matrix{
733 :     my $m = shift;
734 :     my $n = shift;
735 :     my $width = shift;
736 :     my @options = @_;
737 :     my @array=();
738 :     for( my $i = 0; $i < $m; $i+=1)
739 :     {
740 :     my @row_array = ();
741 :    
742 :     for( my $i = 0; $i < $n; $i+=1)
743 :     {
744 :     push @row_array, ans_rule($width);
745 :     }
746 :     my $r_row_array = \@row_array;
747 :     push @array, $r_row_array;
748 :     }
749 : gage 1251 # display_matrix hasn't been loaded into the cache safe compartment
750 :     # so we need to refer to the subroutine in this way to make
751 :     # sure that main is defined correctly.
752 :     my $ra_local_display_matrix=PG_restricted_eval(q!\&main::display_matrix!);
753 :     &$ra_local_display_matrix( \@array, @options );
754 : lr003k 1120
755 :     }
756 :    
757 :     sub NAMED_ANS_ARRAY_EXTENSION{
758 :    
759 :     my $name = shift;
760 :     my $col = shift;
761 :     $col = 20 unless $col;
762 :     my $answer_value = '';
763 :    
764 :     $answer_value = ${$main::inputs_ref}{$name} if defined(${$main::inputs_ref}{$name});
765 :     if ($answer_value =~ /\0/ ) {
766 :     my @answers = split("\0", $answer_value);
767 :     $answer_value = shift(@answers);
768 :     $answer_value= '' unless defined($answer_value);
769 :     } elsif (ref($answer_value) eq 'ARRAY') {
770 :     my @answers = @{ $answer_value};
771 :     $answer_value = shift(@answers);
772 :     $answer_value= '' unless defined($answer_value);
773 :     }
774 :    
775 :     $answer_value =~ tr/$@`//d; ## make sure student answers can not be interpolated by e.g. EV3
776 :     MODES(
777 :     TeX => "\\mbox{\\parbox[t]{10pt}{\\hrulefill}}\\hrulefill\\quad ",
778 :     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME=\"$name\" VALUE = \"\">\n\\end{rawhtml}\n!,
779 :     HTML => "<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME=\"$name\" VALUE = \"$answer_value\">\n"
780 :     );
781 :     }
782 :    
783 :     sub ans_array{
784 :     my $m = shift;
785 :     my $n = shift;
786 :     my $col = shift;
787 :     $col = 20 unless $col;
788 :     my $num = ++$main::ans_rule_count ;
789 :     my $name = NEW_ANS_ARRAY_NAME($num,0,0);
790 :     my @options = @_;
791 :     my @array=();
792 :     my $string;
793 :     my $answer_value = "";
794 :    
795 :     $array[0][0] = NAMED_ANS_RULE($name,$col);
796 :    
797 :     for( my $i = 1; $i < $n; $i+=1)
798 :     {
799 :     $name = NEW_ANS_ARRAY_NAME_EXTENSION($num,0,$i);
800 :     $array[0][$i] = NAMED_ANS_ARRAY_EXTENSION($name,$col);
801 :    
802 :     }
803 :    
804 :     for( my $j = 1; $j < $m; $j+=1 ){
805 :    
806 :     for( my $i = 0; $i < $n; $i+=1)
807 :     {
808 :     $name = NEW_ANS_ARRAY_NAME_EXTENSION($num,$j,$i);
809 :     $array[$j][$i] = NAMED_ANS_ARRAY_EXTENSION($name,$col);
810 :    
811 :     }
812 :    
813 :     }
814 : gage 1251 my $ra_local_display_matrix=PG_restricted_eval(q!\&main::display_matrix!);
815 :     &$ra_local_display_matrix( \@array, @options );
816 : lr003k 1120
817 :     }
818 :    
819 :     sub ans_array_extension{
820 :     my $m = shift;
821 :     my $n = shift;
822 :     my $col = shift;
823 :     $col = 20 unless $col;
824 :     my $num = $main::ans_rule_count;
825 :     my @options = @_;
826 :     my $name;
827 :     my @array=();
828 :     my $string;
829 :     my $answer_value = "";
830 :    
831 :     for( my $j = 0; $j < $m; $j+=1 ){
832 :    
833 :     for( my $i = 0; $i < $n; $i+=1)
834 :     {
835 :     $name = NEW_ANS_ARRAY_NAME_EXTENSION($num,$j,$i);
836 :     $array[$j][$i] = NAMED_ANS_ARRAY_EXTENSION($name,$col);
837 :    
838 :     }
839 :    
840 :     }
841 : gage 1251 my $ra_local_display_matrix=PG_restricted_eval(q!\&main::display_matrix!);
842 :     &$ra_local_display_matrix( \@array, @options );
843 : lr003k 1120
844 :     }
845 :    
846 :    
847 : sh002i 1050 # end answer blank macros
848 :    
849 :     =head2 Hints and solutions macros
850 :    
851 :     solution('text','text2',...);
852 :     SOLUTION('text','text2',...); # equivalent to TEXT(solution(...));
853 :    
854 :     hint('text', 'text2', ...);
855 :     HINT('text', 'text2',...); # equivalent to TEXT("$BR$HINT" . hint(@_) . "$BR") if hint(@_);
856 :    
857 :     Solution prints its concatenated input when the check box named 'ShowSol' is set and
858 :     the time is after the answer date. The check box 'ShowSol' is visible only after the
859 :     answer date or when the problem is viewed by a professor.
860 :    
861 : gage 1251 $main::envir{'displaySolutionsQ'} is set to 1 when a solution is to be displayed.
862 : sh002i 1050
863 :     Hints are shown only after the number of attempts is greater than $:showHint
864 :     ($main::showHint defaults to 1) and the check box named 'ShowHint' is set. The check box
865 :     'ShowHint' is visible only after the number of attempts is greater than $main::showHint.
866 :    
867 : gage 1251 $main::envir{'displayHintsQ'} is set to 1 when a hint is to be displayed.
868 : sh002i 1050
869 :    
870 :     =cut
871 :    
872 :    
873 :    
874 :     # solution prints its input when $displaySolutionsQ is set.
875 :     # use as TEXT(solution("blah, blah");
876 :     # \$solutionExists
877 :     # is passed to processProblem which displays a "show Solution" button
878 :     # when a solution is available for viewing
879 :    
880 :    
881 :     sub solution {
882 :     my @in = @_;
883 :     my $out = '';
884 :     $main::solutionExists =1;
885 : gage 1251 if ($main::envir{'displaySolutionsQ'}) {$out = join(' ',@in);}
886 : sh002i 1050 $out;
887 :     }
888 :    
889 :    
890 :     sub SOLUTION {
891 :     TEXT( solution(@_)) ;
892 :     }
893 :    
894 :    
895 :    
896 :     sub hint {
897 :     my @in = @_;
898 :     my $out = '';
899 : apizer 1080
900 : sh002i 1050 $main::hintExists =1;
901 : apizer 1080 $main::numOfAttempts = 0 unless defined($main::numOfAttempts);
902 : sh002i 1050
903 :     if ($main::displayMode eq 'TeX') {
904 :     $out = ''; # do nothing since hints are not available for download
905 : gage 1251 } elsif (($main::envir{'displayHintsQ'}) and ($main::numOfAttempts >= $main::showHint))
906 : apizer 1080
907 : sh002i 1050 ## the second test above prevents a hint being shown if a doctored form is submitted
908 : apizer 1080
909 : sh002i 1050 {$out = join(' ',@in);} # show hint
910 : apizer 1080
911 : sh002i 1050 $out ;
912 :     }
913 :    
914 :    
915 :     sub HINT {
916 :     TEXT("$main::BR" . hint(@_) . "$main::BR") if hint(@_);
917 :     }
918 :    
919 :    
920 :    
921 :     # End hints and solutions macros
922 :     #################################
923 :    
924 :     # Produces a random number between $begin and $end with increment 1.
925 :     # You do not have to worry about integer or floating point types.
926 :    
927 :     =head2 Pseudo-random number generator
928 :    
929 :     Usage:
930 :     random(0,5,.1) # produces a random number between 0 and 5 in increments of .1
931 :     non_zero_random(0,5,.1) # gives a non-zero random number
932 :    
933 :     list_random(2,3,5,6,7,8,10) # produces random value from the list
934 :     list_random(2,3, (5..8),10) # does the same thing
935 :    
936 :     SRAND(seed) # resets the main random generator -- use very cautiously
937 :    
938 :    
939 :     SRAND(time) will create a different problem everytime it is called. This makes it difficult
940 :     to check the answers :-).
941 :    
942 : gage 1251 SRAND($envir->{'inputs_ref'}->{'key'} ) will create a different problem for each login session.
943 : sh002i 1050 This is probably what is desired.
944 :    
945 :     =cut
946 :    
947 :    
948 :     sub random {
949 :     my ($begin, $end, $incr) = @_;
950 :     $main::PG_random_generator->random($begin,$end,$incr);
951 :     }
952 :    
953 :    
954 :     sub non_zero_random { ##gives a non-zero random number
955 :     my (@arguments)=@_;
956 :     my $a=0;
957 :     my $i=100; #safety counter
958 :     while ($a==0 && ( 0 < $i-- ) ) {
959 :     $a=random(@arguments);
960 :     }
961 :     $a;
962 :     }
963 :    
964 :     sub list_random {
965 :     my(@li) = @_;
966 :     return $li[random(1,scalar(@li))-1];
967 :     }
968 :    
969 :     sub SRAND { # resets the main random generator -- use cautiously
970 :     my $seed = shift;
971 : gage 1253 PG_random_generator -> srand($seed);
972 : sh002i 1050 }
973 :    
974 :     # display macros
975 :    
976 :     =head2 Display Macros
977 :    
978 :     These macros produce different output depending on the display mode being used to show
979 :     the problem on the screen, or whether the problem is being converted to TeX to produce
980 :     a hard copy output.
981 :    
982 :     MODES ( TeX => "Output this in TeX mode",
983 :     HTML => "output this in HTML mode",
984 :     HTML_tth => "output this in HTML_tth mode",
985 :     HTML_dpng => "output this in HTML_dpng mode",
986 :     Latex2HTML => "output this in Latex2HTML mode",
987 :     )
988 :    
989 :     TEX (tex_version, html_version) #obsolete
990 :    
991 :     M3 (tex_version, latex2html_version, html_version) #obsolete
992 :    
993 :    
994 :    
995 :     =cut
996 :    
997 :    
998 :     sub TEX {
999 :     my ($tex, $html ) = @_;
1000 :     MODES(TeX => $tex, HTML => $html, HTML_tth => $html, HTML_dpng => $html);
1001 :     }
1002 :    
1003 :    
1004 :     sub M3 {
1005 :     my($tex,$l2h,$html) = @_;
1006 :     MODES(TeX => $tex, Latex2HTML => $l2h, HTML => $html, HTML_tth => $html, HTML_dpng => $html);
1007 :     }
1008 :    
1009 :     # This replaces M3. You can add new modes at will to this one.
1010 :    
1011 :     sub MODES {
1012 :     my %options = @_;
1013 :     return $options{$displayMode}
1014 :     if defined( $options{$displayMode} );
1015 :    
1016 :     # default searches.
1017 :     if ($displayMode eq "Latex2HTML") {
1018 :     return $options{TeX}
1019 :     if defined( $options{TeX} );
1020 :     return $options{HTML}
1021 :     if defined( $options{HTML} );
1022 :     die " ERROR in using MODES: 'HTML' and 'TeX' options not defined for 'Latex2HTML'";
1023 :     }
1024 :    
1025 :     if ($displayMode eq "HTML_tth") {
1026 :     return $options{HTML}
1027 :     if defined( $options{HTML} );
1028 :     die " ERROR in using MODES: 'HTML' option not defined for HTML_tth";
1029 :    
1030 :     }
1031 : apizer 1080
1032 : sh002i 1050 if ($displayMode eq "HTML_img") {
1033 :     return $options{HTML_dpng} if defined $options{HTML_dpng};
1034 :     return $options{HTML_tth} if defined $options{HTML_tth};
1035 :     return $options{HTML} if defined $options{HTML};
1036 :     die " ERROR in using MODES: 'HTML' option not defined for HTML_img";
1037 :     }
1038 : apizer 1080
1039 : sh002i 1050 if ($displayMode eq "HTML_dpng") {
1040 :     return $options{HTML_tth}
1041 :     if defined( $options{HTML_tth} );
1042 :     return $options{HTML}
1043 :     if defined( $options{HTML} );
1044 :     die " ERROR in using MODES: 'HTML' option not defined for HTML_dpng";
1045 :    
1046 :     }
1047 :    
1048 :     # trap undefined errors
1049 :     die "ERROR in defining MODES: Can't find |$displayMode| among
1050 : apizer 1080 available options:" . join(" ", keys(%options) )
1051 : sh002i 1050 . " file " . __FILE__ ." line " . __LINE__."\n\n";
1052 :    
1053 :     }
1054 :    
1055 :    
1056 :     # end display macros
1057 :    
1058 :    
1059 :     =head2 Display constants
1060 :    
1061 :     @ALPHABET ALPHABET() capital letter alphabet -- ALPHABET[0] = 'A'
1062 :     $PAR PAR() paragraph character (\par or <p>)
1063 :     $BR BR() line break character
1064 :     $LQ LQ() left double quote
1065 :     $RQ RQ() right double quote
1066 :     $BM BM() begin math
1067 :     $EM EM() end math
1068 :     $BDM BDM() begin display math
1069 :     $EDM EDM() end display math
1070 :     $LTS LTS() strictly less than
1071 :     $GTS GTS() strictly greater than
1072 :     $LTE LTE() less than or equal
1073 :     $GTE GTE() greater than or equal
1074 :     $BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN() begin one-column mode
1075 :     $END_ONE_COLUMN END_ONE_COLUMN() end one-column mode
1076 :     $SOL SOLUTION_HEADING() solution headline
1077 :     $SOLUTION SOLUTION_HEADING() solution headline
1078 :     $HINT HINT_HEADING() hint headline
1079 :     $US US() underscore character
1080 :     $SPACE SPACE() space character (tex and latex only)
1081 :     $BBOLD BBOLD() begin bold typeface
1082 :     $EBOLD EBOLD() end bold typeface
1083 :     $BITALIC BITALIC() begin italic typeface
1084 :     $EITALIC EITALIC() end italic typeface
1085 :     $BCENTER BCENTER() begin centered environment
1086 : apizer 1080 $ECENTER ECENTER() end centered environment
1087 : sh002i 1050 $HR HR() horizontal rule
1088 :     $LBRACE LBRACE() left brace
1089 :     $LB LB () left brace
1090 :     $RBRACE RBRACE() right brace
1091 :     $RB RB () right brace
1092 :     $DOLLAR DOLLAR() a dollar sign
1093 :     $PERCENT PERCENT() a percent sign
1094 :     $CARET CARET() a caret sign
1095 :     $PI PI() the number pi
1096 :     $E E() the number e
1097 :    
1098 :     =cut
1099 :    
1100 :    
1101 :    
1102 :    
1103 :    
1104 :     # A utility variable. Notice that "B"=$ALPHABET[1] and
1105 :     # "ABCD"=@ALPHABET[0..3].
1106 :    
1107 :     sub ALPHABET {
1108 :     ('A'..'ZZ')[@_];
1109 :     }
1110 :    
1111 :     ###############################################################
1112 :     # Some constants which are different in tex and in HTML
1113 :     # The order of arguments is TeX, Latex2HTML, HTML
1114 :     sub PAR { MODES( TeX => '\\par ',Latex2HTML => '\\par ',HTML => '<P>' ); };
1115 :     sub BR { MODES( TeX => '\\par\\noindent ',Latex2HTML => '\\par\\noindent ',HTML => '<BR>'); };
1116 :     sub LQ { MODES( TeX => "``", Latex2HTML => '"', HTML => '&quot;' ); };
1117 :     sub RQ { MODES( TeX => "''", Latex2HTML => '"', HTML => '&quot;' ); };
1118 :     sub BM { MODES(TeX => '\\(', Latex2HTML => '\\(', HTML => ''); }; # begin math mode
1119 :     sub EM { MODES(TeX => '\\)', Latex2HTML => '\\)', HTML => ''); }; # end math mode
1120 :     sub BDM { MODES(TeX => '\\[', Latex2HTML => '\\[', HTML => '<P ALIGN=CENTER>'); }; #begin displayMath mode
1121 :     sub EDM { MODES(TeX => '\\]', Latex2HTML => '\\]', HTML => '</P>'); }; #end displayMath mode
1122 :     sub LTS { MODES(TeX => ' < ', Latex2HTML => ' \\lt ', HTML => '&lt;'); };
1123 :     sub GTS {MODES(TeX => ' > ', Latex2HTML => ' \\gt ', HTML => '&gt;'); };
1124 :     sub LTE { MODES(TeX => ' \\le ', Latex2HTML => ' \\le ', HTML => '&lt;=' ); };
1125 :     sub GTE { MODES(TeX => ' \\ge ', Latex2HTML => ' \\ge ', HTML => '&gt;'); };
1126 :     sub BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN { MODES(TeX => " \\end{multicols}\n", Latex2HTML => " ", HTML => " "); };
1127 :     sub END_ONE_COLUMN { MODES(TeX =>
1128 :     " \\begin{multicols}{2}\n\\columnwidth=\\linewidth\n",
1129 :     Latex2HTML => ' ', HTML => ' ');
1130 :    
1131 :     };
1132 :     sub SOLUTION_HEADING { MODES( TeX => '\\par {\\bf Solution:}',
1133 :     Latex2HTML => '\\par {\\bf Solution:}',
1134 :     HTML => '<P><B>Solution:</B>');
1135 :     };
1136 :     sub HINT_HEADING { MODES( TeX => "\\par {\\bf Hint:}", Latex2HTML => "\\par {\\bf Hint:}", HTML => "<P><B>Hint:</B>"); };
1137 :     sub US { MODES(TeX => '\\_', Latex2HTML => '\\_', HTML => '_');}; # underscore, e.g. file${US}name
1138 :     sub SPACE { MODES(TeX => '\\ ', Latex2HTML => '\\ ', HTML => '&nbsp;');}; # force a space in latex, doesn't force extra space in html
1139 :     sub BBOLD { MODES(TeX => '{\\bf ', Latex2HTML => '{\\bf ', HTML => '<B>'); };
1140 :     sub EBOLD { MODES( TeX => '}', Latex2HTML => '}',HTML => '</B>'); };
1141 :     sub BITALIC { MODES(TeX => '{\\it ', Latex2HTML => '{\\it ', HTML => '<I>'); };
1142 :     sub EITALIC { MODES(TeX => '} ', Latex2HTML => '} ', HTML => '</I>'); };
1143 :     sub BCENTER { MODES(TeX => '\\begin{center} ', Latex2HTML => ' \\begin{rawhtml} <div align="center"> \\end{rawhtml} ', HTML => '<div align="center">'); };
1144 :     sub ECENTER { MODES(TeX => '\\end{center} ', Latex2HTML => ' \\begin{rawhtml} </div> \\end{rawhtml} ', HTML => '</div>'); };
1145 :     sub HR { MODES(TeX => '\\par\\hrulefill\\par ', Latex2HTML => '\\begin{rawhtml} <HR> \\end{rawhtml}', HTML => '<HR>'); };
1146 :     sub LBRACE { MODES( TeX => '\{', Latex2HTML => '\\lbrace', HTML => '\{' , HTML_tth=> '\\lbrace' ); };
1147 :     sub RBRACE { MODES( TeX => '\}', Latex2HTML => '\\rbrace', HTML => '\}' , HTML_tth=> '\\rbrace',); };
1148 :     sub LB { MODES( TeX => '\{', Latex2HTML => '\\lbrace', HTML => '\{' , HTML_tth=> '\\lbrace' ); };
1149 :     sub RB { MODES( TeX => '\}', Latex2HTML => '\\rbrace', HTML => '\}' , HTML_tth=> '\\rbrace',); };
1150 :     sub DOLLAR { MODES( TeX => '\\$', Latex2HTML => '\\$', HTML => '$' ); };
1151 :     sub PERCENT { MODES( TeX => '\\%', Latex2HTML => '\\%', HTML => '%' ); };
1152 :     sub CARET { MODES( TeX => '\\verb+^+', Latex2HTML => '\\verb+^+', HTML => '^' ); };
1153 :     sub PI {4*atan2(1,1);};
1154 :     sub E {exp(1);};
1155 :    
1156 :     ###############################################################
1157 :     ## Evaluation macros
1158 :    
1159 :    
1160 :     =head2 TEXT macros
1161 :    
1162 :     Usage:
1163 :     TEXT(@text);
1164 :    
1165 :     This is the simplest way to print text from a problem. The strings in the array C<@text> are concatenated
1166 :     with spaces between them and printed out in the text of the problem. The text is not processed in any other way.
1167 :     C<TEXT> is defined in PG.pl.
1168 :    
1169 :     Usage:
1170 :     BEGIN_TEXT
1171 :     text.....
1172 :     END_TEXT
1173 :    
1174 :     This is the most common way to enter text into the problem. All of the text between BEGIN_TEXT and END_TEXT
1175 :     is processed by the C<EV3> macro described below and then printed using the C<TEXT> command. The two key words
1176 :     must appear on lines by themselves. The preprocessing that makes this construction work is done in F<PGtranslator.pm>.
1177 :     See C<EV3> below for details on the processing.
1178 :    
1179 :    
1180 :     =cut
1181 :    
1182 :     =head2 Evaluation macros
1183 :    
1184 :     =head3 EV3
1185 :    
1186 :     TEXT(EV3("This is a formulat \( \int_0^5 x^2 \, dx \) ");
1187 :     TEXT(EV3(@text));
1188 :    
1189 :     TEXT(EV3(<<'END_TEXT'));
1190 :     text stuff...
1191 :     END_TEXT
1192 :    
1193 :    
1194 :     The BEGIN_TEXT/END_TEXT construction is translated into the construction above by PGtranslator.pm. END_TEXT must appear
1195 :     on a line by itself and be left justified. (The << construction is known as a "here document" in UNIX and in PERL.)
1196 :    
1197 :     The single quotes around END_TEXT mean that no automatic interpolation of variables takes place in the text.
1198 :     Using EV3 with strings which have been evaluated by double quotes may lead to unexpected results.
1199 :    
1200 :    
1201 :     The evaluation macro E3 first evaluates perl code inside the braces: C<\{ code \}>.
1202 :     Any perl statment can be put inside the braces. The
1203 :     result of the evaluation (i.e. the last statement evaluated) replaces the C<\{ code \}> construction.
1204 :    
1205 :     Next interpolation of all variables (e.g. C<$var or @array> ) is performed.
1206 :    
1207 :     Then mathematical formulas in TeX are evaluated within the
1208 :     C<\( tex math mode \)> and
1209 :     C<\[ tex display math mode \] >
1210 :     constructions, in that order:
1211 :    
1212 :     =head3 FEQ
1213 :    
1214 :     FEQ($string); # processes and outputs the string
1215 :    
1216 :    
1217 :     The mathematical formulas are run through the macro C<FEQ> (Format EQuations) which performs
1218 :     several substitutions (see below).
1219 :     In C<HTML_tth> mode the resulting code is processed by tth to obtain an HTML version
1220 :     of the formula. (In the future processing by WebEQ may be added here as another option.)
1221 :     The Latex2HTML mode does nothing
1222 :     at this stage; it creates the entire problem before running it through
1223 :     TeX and creating the GIF images of the equations.
1224 :    
1225 :     The resulting string is output (and usually fed into TEXT to be printed in the problem).
1226 :    
1227 :     Usage:
1228 :    
1229 :     $string2 = FEQ($string1);
1230 :    
1231 :     This is a filter which is used to format equations by C<EV2> and C<EV3>, but can also be used on its own. It is best
1232 :     understood with an example.
1233 :    
1234 :     $string1 = "${a}x^2 + ${b}x + {$c:%.1f}"; $a = 3;, $b = -2; $c = -7.345;
1235 :    
1236 :     when interpolated becomes:
1237 :    
1238 :     $string1 = '3x^2 + -2x + {-7.345:%0.1f}
1239 :    
1240 :     FEQ first changes the number of decimal places displayed, so that the last term becomes -7.3 Then it removes the
1241 :     extraneous plus and minus signs, so that the final result is what you want:
1242 :    
1243 :     $string2 = '3x^2 - 2x -7.3';
1244 :    
1245 :     (The %0.1f construction
1246 :     is the same formatting convention used by Perl and nearly identical to the one used by the C printf statement. Some common
1247 :     usage: %0.3f 3 decimal places, fixed notation; %0.3e 3 significant figures exponential notation; %0.3g uses either fixed
1248 :     or exponential notation depending on the size of the number.)
1249 :    
1250 :     Two additional legacy formatting constructions are also supported:
1251 :    
1252 :     C<?{$c:%0.3f} > will give a number with 3 decimal places and a negative
1253 :     sign if the number is negative, no sign if the number is positive.
1254 :    
1255 :     C<!{$c:%0.3f}> determines the sign and prints it
1256 :     whether the number is positive or negative.
1257 :    
1258 :     =head3 EV2
1259 :    
1260 :     TEXT(EV2(@text));
1261 :    
1262 :     TEXT(EV2(<<END_OF_TEXT));
1263 :     text stuff...
1264 :     END_OF_TEXT
1265 :    
1266 :     This is a precursor to EV3. In this case the constants are interpolated first, before the evaluation of the \{ ...code...\}
1267 :     construct. This can lead to unexpected results. For example C<\{ join(" ", @text) \}> with C<@text = ("Hello","World");> becomes,
1268 :     after interpolation, C<\{ join(" ",Hello World) \}> which then causes an error when evaluated because Hello is a bare word.
1269 :     C<EV2> can still be useful if you allow for this, and in particular it works on double quoted strings, which lead to
1270 :     unexpected results with C<EV3>. Using single quoted strings with C<EV2> may lead to unexpected results.
1271 :    
1272 :     The unexpected results have to do with the number of times backslashed constructions have to be escaped. It is quite messy. For
1273 :     more details get a good Perl book and then read the code. :-)
1274 :    
1275 :    
1276 :    
1277 :    
1278 :     =cut
1279 :    
1280 :    
1281 :     sub ev_substring {
1282 :     my $string = shift;
1283 :     my $start_delim = shift;
1284 :     my $end_delim = shift;
1285 :     my $actionRef = shift;
1286 :     my ($eval_out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report)=();
1287 :     my $out = "";
1288 :     while ($string) {
1289 :     if ($string =~ /\Q$start_delim\E/s) {
1290 :     #print "$start_delim $end_delim evaluating_substring=$string<BR>";
1291 :     $string =~ s/^(.*?)\Q$start_delim\E//s; # get string up to next \{ ---treats string as a single line, ignoring returns
1292 :     $out .= $1;
1293 :     #print "$start_delim $end_delim substring_out=$out<BR>";
1294 :     $string =~ s/^(.*?)\Q$end_delim\E//s; # get perl code up to \} ---treats string as a single line, ignoring returns
1295 :     #print "$start_delim $end_delim evaluate_string=$1<BR>";
1296 :     ($eval_out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report) = &$actionRef($1);
1297 :     $eval_out = "$start_delim $eval_out $end_delim" if $PG_full_error_report;
1298 :     $out = $out . $eval_out;
1299 :     #print "$start_delim $end_delim new substring_out=$out<BR><p><BR>";
1300 :     $out .="$main::PAR ERROR $0 in ev_substring, PGbasicmacros.pl:$main::PAR <PRE> $@ </PRE>$main::PAR" if $@;
1301 :     }
1302 :     else {
1303 :     $out .= $string; # flush the last part of the string
1304 :     last;
1305 :     }
1306 :    
1307 :     }
1308 :     $out;
1309 :     }
1310 :     sub safe_ev {
1311 :     my ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report) = &old_safe_ev; # process input by old_safe_ev first
1312 :     $out =~s/\\/\\\\/g; # protect any new backslashes introduced.
1313 :     ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report)
1314 :     }
1315 :    
1316 :     sub old_safe_ev {
1317 :     my $in = shift;
1318 :     my ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report) = PG_restricted_eval("$in;");
1319 :     # the addition of the ; seems to provide better error reporting
1320 :     if ($PG_eval_errors) {
1321 :     my @errorLines = split("\n",$PG_eval_errors);
1322 :     #$out = "<PRE>$main::PAR % ERROR in $0:old_safe_ev, PGbasicmacros.pl: $main::PAR % There is an error occuring inside evaluation brackets \\{ ...code... \\} $main::BR % somewhere in an EV2 or EV3 or BEGIN_TEXT block. $main::BR % Code evaluated:$main::BR $in $main::BR % $main::BR % $errorLines[0]\n % $errorLines[1]$main::BR % $main::BR % $main::BR </PRE> ";
1323 :     warn " ERROR in old_safe_ev, PGbasicmacros.pl: <PRE>
1324 :     ## There is an error occuring inside evaluation brackets \\{ ...code... \\}
1325 :     ## somewhere in an EV2 or EV3 or BEGIN_TEXT block.
1326 :     ## Code evaluated:
1327 :     ## $in
1328 :     ##" .join("\n ", @errorLines). "
1329 :     ##</PRE>$main::BR
1330 :     ";
1331 :     $out ="$main::PAR $main::BBOLD $in $main::EBOLD $main::PAR";
1332 :    
1333 :    
1334 :     }
1335 :    
1336 :     ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report);
1337 :     }
1338 :    
1339 :     sub FEQ { # Format EQuations
1340 :     my $in = shift;
1341 :     # formatting numbers -- the ?{} and !{} constructions
1342 :     $in =~s/\?\s*\{([.\-\$\w\d]+):?([%.\da-z]*)\}/${ \( &sspf($1,$2) )}/g;
1343 :     $in =~s/\!\s*\{([.\-\$\w\d]+):?([%.\da-z]*)\}/${ \( &spf($1,$2) )}/g;
1344 :    
1345 :     # more formatting numbers -- {number:format} constructions
1346 :     $in =~ s/\{(\s*[\+\-\d\.]+[eE]*[\+\-]*\d*):(\%\d*.\d*\w)}/${ \( &spf($1,$2) )}/g;
1347 :     $in =~ s/\+\s*\-/ - /g;
1348 :     $in =~ s/\-\s*\+/ - /g;
1349 :     $in =~ s/\+\s*\+/ + /g;
1350 :     $in =~ s/\-\s*\-/ + /g;
1351 :     $in;
1352 :     }
1353 :    
1354 :     #sub math_ev3 {
1355 :     # my $in = shift; #print "in=$in<BR>";
1356 :     # my ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report);
1357 :     # $in = FEQ($in);
1358 :     # $in =~ s/%/\\%/g; # % causes trouble in TeX and HTML_tth it usually (always?) indicates an error, not comment
1359 :     # return("$main::BM $in $main::EM") unless ($displayMode eq 'HTML_tth');
1360 :     # $in = "\\(" . $in . "\\)";
1361 :     # $out = tth($in);
1362 :     # ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report);
1363 :     #
1364 :     #}
1365 :     #
1366 :     #sub display_math_ev3 {
1367 :     # my $in = shift; #print "in=$in<BR>";
1368 :     # my ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report);
1369 :     # $in = FEQ($in);
1370 :     # $in =~ s/%/\\%/g;
1371 :     # return("$main::BDM $in $main::EDM") unless $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' ;
1372 :     # $in = "\\[" . $in . "\\]";
1373 :     # $out =tth($in);
1374 :     # ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report);
1375 :     #}
1376 :    
1377 :     sub math_ev3 {
1378 :     my $in = shift;
1379 :     return general_math_ev3($in, "inline");
1380 :     }
1381 :    
1382 :     sub display_math_ev3 {
1383 :     my $in = shift;
1384 :     return general_math_ev3($in, "display");
1385 :     }
1386 :    
1387 :     sub general_math_ev3 {
1388 :     my $in = shift;
1389 :     my $mode = shift || "inline";
1390 : apizer 1080
1391 : sh002i 1155 $in = FEQ($in); # Format EQuations
1392 :     $in =~ s/%/\\%/g; # avoid % becoming TeX comments
1393 :    
1394 :     # some modes want the delimiters, some don't
1395 :     my $in_delim = $mode eq "inline"
1396 :     ? "\\($in\\)"
1397 :     : "\\[$in\\]";
1398 :    
1399 : sh002i 1050 my $out;
1400 : gage 1071 if($displayMode eq "HTML_tth") {
1401 :     $out = tth($in_delim);
1402 :     } elsif ($displayMode eq "HTML_dpng") {
1403 : sh002i 1158 # for jj's version of ImageGenerator
1404 : gage 1251 $out = $envir->{'imagegen'}->add($in_delim);
1405 : sh002i 1158 # for my version of ImageGenerator
1406 : gage 1251 #$out = $envir->{'imagegen'}->add($in, $mode);
1407 : sh002i 1050 } elsif ($displayMode eq "HTML_img") {
1408 :     $out = math2img($in, $mode);
1409 :     } else {
1410 :     $out = "\\($in\\)" if $mode eq "inline";
1411 :     $out = "\\[$in\\]" if $mode eq "display";
1412 :     }
1413 :     return $out;
1414 :     }
1415 :    
1416 :     sub EV2 {
1417 :     my $string = join(" ",@_);
1418 :     # evaluate code inside of \{ \} (no nesting allowed)
1419 :     $string = ev_substring($string,"\\{","\\}",\&old_safe_ev);
1420 :     $string = ev_substring($string,"\\<","\\>",\&old_safe_ev);
1421 :     $string = ev_substring($string,"\\(","\\)",\&math_ev3);
1422 :     $string = ev_substring($string,"\\[","\\]",\&display_math_ev3);
1423 :     # macros for displaying math
1424 :     $string =~ s/\\\(/$main::BM/g;
1425 :     $string =~ s/\\\)/$main::EM/g;
1426 :     $string =~ s/\\\[/$main::BDM/g;
1427 :     $string =~ s/\\\]/$main::EDM/g;
1428 :     $string;
1429 :     }
1430 :    
1431 :     sub EV3{
1432 :     my $string = join(" ",@_);
1433 :     # evaluate code inside of \{ \} (no nesting allowed)
1434 :     $string = ev_substring($string,"\\\\{","\\\\}",\&safe_ev); # handles \{ \} in single quoted strings of PG files
1435 :     # interpolate variables
1436 :     my ($evaluated_string,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_errors) = PG_restricted_eval("<<END_OF_EVALUATION_STRING\n$string\nEND_OF_EVALUATION_STRING\n");
1437 :     if ($PG_eval_errors) {
1438 :     my @errorLines = split("\n",$PG_eval_errors);
1439 :     $string =~ s/</&lt;/g; $string =~ s/>/&gt;/g;
1440 :     $evaluated_string = "<PRE>$main::PAR % ERROR in $0:EV3, PGbasicmacros.pl: $main::PAR % There is an error occuring in the following code:$main::BR $string $main::BR % $main::BR % $errorLines[0]\n % $errorLines[1]$main::BR % $main::BR % $main::BR </PRE> ";
1441 :     $@="";
1442 :     }
1443 :     $string = $evaluated_string;
1444 :     $string = ev_substring($string,"\\(","\\)",\&math_ev3);
1445 :     $string = ev_substring($string,"\\[","\\]",\&display_math_ev3);
1446 :     $string;
1447 :     }
1448 :    
1449 :     =head2 Formatting macros
1450 :    
1451 :     beginproblem() # generates text listing number and the point value of
1452 :     # the problem. It will also print the file name containing
1453 :     # the problem for users listed in the PRINT_FILE_NAMES_FOR PG_environment
1454 :     # variable.
1455 :     OL(@array) # formats the array as an Ordered List ( <OL> </OL> ) enumerated by letters.
1456 :    
1457 :     htmlLink($url, $text)
1458 :     # Places a reference to the URL with the specified text in the problem.
1459 :     # A common usage is \{ htmlLink(alias('prob1_help.html') \}, 'for help')
1460 :     # where alias finds the full address of the prob1_help.html file in the same directory
1461 :     # as the problem file
1462 :     appletLink($url, $parameters)
1463 :     # For example
1464 :     # appletLink(q! archive="http: //webwork.math.rochester.edu/gage/xFunctions/xFunctions.zip"
1465 :     code="xFunctionsLauncher.class" width=100 height=14!,
1466 :     " parameter text goes here")
1467 :     # will link to xFunctions.
1468 :    
1469 :     low level:
1470 :    
1471 :     spf($number, $format) # prints the number with the given format
1472 :     sspf($number, $format) # prints the number with the given format, always including a sign.
1473 :     protect_underbar($string) # protects the underbar (class_name) in strings which may have to pass through TeX.
1474 :    
1475 :     =cut
1476 :    
1477 :     sub beginproblem {
1478 :     my $out = "";
1479 :     my $TeXFileName = protect_underbar($main::fileName);
1480 :     my $l2hFileName = protect_underbar($main::fileName);
1481 :     my %inlist;
1482 :     my $points ='pts';
1483 :     $points = 'pt' if $main::problemValue == 1;
1484 :     ## Prepare header for the problem
1485 : gage 1251 grep($inlist{$_}++,@{ $envir->{'PRINT_FILE_NAMES_FOR'} });
1486 : sh002i 1050 if ( defined($inlist{$main::studentLogin}) and ($inlist{$main::studentLogin} > 0) ) {
1487 :     $out = &M3("\n\n\\medskip\\hrule\\smallskip\\par{\\bf ${main::probNum}.{\\footnotesize ($main::problemValue $points) $TeXFileName}}\\newline ",
1488 :     " \\begin{rawhtml} ($main::problemValue $points) <B>$l2hFileName</B><BR>\\end{rawhtml}",
1489 :     "($main::problemValue $points) <B>$main::fileName</B><BR>"
1490 :     );
1491 :     } else {
1492 :     $out = &M3("\n\n\\smallskip\\hrule\\smallskip\\par{\\bf ${main::probNum}.}($main::problemValue $points) ",
1493 :     "($main::problemValue $points) ",
1494 :     "($main::problemValue $points) "
1495 :     );
1496 :     }
1497 :     $out;
1498 :    
1499 :     }
1500 :    
1501 :     # kludge to clean up path names
1502 :     ## allow underscore character in set and section names and also allows line breaks at /
1503 :     sub protect_underbar {
1504 :     my $in = shift;
1505 :     if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
1506 :    
1507 :     $in =~ s|_|\\\_|g;
1508 :     $in =~ s|/|\\\-/|g; # allows an optional hyphenation of the path (in tex)
1509 :     }
1510 :     $in;
1511 :     }
1512 :    
1513 :    
1514 :     # An example of a macro which prints out a list (with letters)
1515 :     sub OL {
1516 :     my(@array) = @_;
1517 :     my $i = 0;
1518 :     my $out= &M3(
1519 :     "\\begin{enumerate}\n",
1520 :     " \\begin{rawhtml} <OL TYPE=\"A\" VALUE=\"1\"> \\end{rawhtml} ",
1521 :     "<OL TYPE=\"A\" VALUE=\"1\">\n"
1522 :     ) ;
1523 :     my $elem;
1524 :     foreach $elem (@array) {
1525 :     $out .= MODES(
1526 :     TeX=> "\\item[$main::ALPHABET[$i].] $elem\n",
1527 :     Latex2HTML=> " \\begin{rawhtml} <LI> \\end{rawhtml} $elem ",
1528 :     HTML=> "<LI> $elem\n",
1529 :     HTML_dpng=> "<LI> $elem <br /> <br /> \n"
1530 :     );
1531 :     $i++;
1532 :     }
1533 :     $out .= &M3(
1534 :     "\\end{enumerate}\n",
1535 :     " \\begin{rawhtml} </OL>\n \\end{rawhtml} ",
1536 :     "</OL>\n"
1537 :     ) ;
1538 :     }
1539 :    
1540 :     sub htmlLink {
1541 :     my $url = shift;
1542 :     my $text = shift;
1543 :     my $options = shift;
1544 :     $options = "" unless defined($options);
1545 :     return "${main::BBOLD}[ broken link: $text ] ${main::EBOLD}" unless defined($url);
1546 :     M3( "{\\bf \\underline{$text} }",
1547 :     "\\begin{rawhtml} <A HREF=\"$url\" $options> $text </A>\\end{rawhtml}",
1548 :     "<A HREF=\"$url\" $options> $text </A>"
1549 :     );
1550 :     }
1551 :     sub appletLink {
1552 :     my $url = shift;
1553 :     my $options = shift;
1554 :     $options = "" unless defined($options);
1555 :     M3( "{\\bf \\underline{APPLET} }",
1556 :     "\\begin{rawhtml} <APPLET $url> $options </APPLET>\\end{rawhtml}",
1557 :     "<APPLET $url> $options </APPLET>"
1558 :     );
1559 :     }
1560 :     sub spf {
1561 :     my($number,$format) = @_; # attention, the order of format and number are reversed
1562 :     $format = "%4.3g" unless $format; # default value for format
1563 :     sprintf($format, $number);
1564 :     }
1565 :     sub sspf {
1566 :     my($number,$format) = @_; # attention, the order of format and number are reversed
1567 :     $format = "%4.3g" unless $format; # default value for format
1568 :     my $sign = $number>=0 ? " + " : " - ";
1569 :     $number = $number>=0 ? $number : -$number;
1570 :     $sign .sprintf($format, $number);
1571 :     }
1572 :    
1573 :     =head2 Sorting and other list macros
1574 :    
1575 :    
1576 :    
1577 :     Usage:
1578 :     lex_sort(@list); # outputs list in lexigraphic (alphabetical) order
1579 :     num_sort(@list); # outputs list in numerical order
1580 :     uniq( @list); # outputs a list with no duplicates. Order is unspecified.
1581 :    
1582 :     PGsort( \&sort_subroutine, @list);
1583 :     # &sort_subroutine defines order. It's output must be -1,0 or 1.
1584 :    
1585 :     =cut
1586 :    
1587 :     # uniq gives unique elements of a list:
1588 :     sub uniq {
1589 :     my (@in) =@_;
1590 :     my %temp = ();
1591 :     while (@in) {
1592 :     $temp{shift(@in)}++;
1593 :     }
1594 :     my @out = keys %temp; # sort is causing trouble with Safe.??
1595 :     @out;
1596 :     }
1597 :    
1598 :     sub lex_sort {
1599 : apizer 1080 PGsort sub {$_[0] cmp $_[1]}, @_;
1600 : sh002i 1050 }
1601 :     sub num_sort {
1602 :     PGsort sub {$_[0] <=> $_[1]}, @_;
1603 :     }
1604 :    
1605 :    
1606 :     =head2 Macros for handling tables
1607 :    
1608 :     Usage:
1609 :     begintable( number_of_columns_in_table)
1610 :     row(@dataelements)
1611 :     endtable()
1612 :    
1613 :     Example of useage:
1614 :    
1615 :     BEGIN_TEXT
1616 :     This problem tests calculating new functions from old ones:$BR
1617 :     From the table below calculate the quantities asked for:$BR
1618 :     \{begintable(scalar(@firstrow)+1)\}
1619 :     \{row(" \(x\) ",@firstrow)\}
1620 :     \{row(" \(f(x)\) ", @secondrow)\}
1621 :     \{row(" \(g(x)\) ", @thirdrow)\}
1622 :     \{row(" \(f'(x)\) ", @fourthrow)\}
1623 :     \{row(" \(g'(x)\) ", @fifthrow)\}
1624 :     \{endtable()\}
1625 :    
1626 :     (The arrays contain numbers which are placed in the table.)
1627 :    
1628 :     END_TEXT
1629 :    
1630 :     =cut
1631 :    
1632 :     sub begintable {
1633 :     my ($number)=shift; #number of columns in table
1634 :     my %options = @_;
1635 :     warn "begintable(cols) requires a number indicating the number of columns" unless defined($number);
1636 :     my $out = "";
1637 :     if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
1638 :     $out .= "\n\\par\\smallskip\\begin{center}\\begin{tabular}{" . "|c" x $number . "|} \\hline\n";
1639 :     }
1640 :     elsif ($displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML') {
1641 :     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} <TABLE , BORDER=1>\n\\end{rawhtml}";
1642 :     }
1643 :     elsif ($displayMode eq 'HTML' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_img') {
1644 :     $out .= "<TABLE BORDER=1>\n"
1645 :     }
1646 : apizer 1080 else {
1647 : sh002i 1050 $out = "Error: PGchoicemacros: begintable: Unknown displayMode: $displayMode.\n";
1648 :     }
1649 :     $out;
1650 :     }
1651 :    
1652 :     sub endtable {
1653 :     my $out = "";
1654 :     if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
1655 :     $out .= "\n\\end {tabular}\\end{center}\\par\\smallskip\n";
1656 :     }
1657 :     elsif ($displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML') {
1658 :     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} </TABLE >\n\\end{rawhtml}";
1659 :     }
1660 :     elsif ($displayMode eq 'HTML' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng' ||$displayMode eq 'HTML_img') {
1661 :     $out .= "</TABLE>\n";
1662 :     }
1663 :     else {
1664 :     $out = "Error: PGchoicemacros: endtable: Unknown displayMode: $displayMode.\n";
1665 :     }
1666 :     $out;
1667 :     }
1668 :    
1669 :    
1670 :     sub row {
1671 :     my @elements = @_;
1672 :     my $out = "";
1673 :     if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
1674 :     while (@elements) {
1675 :     $out .= shift(@elements) . " &";
1676 :     }
1677 :     chop($out); # remove last &
1678 :     $out .= "\\\\ \\hline \n";
1679 :     # carriage returns must be added manually for tex
1680 :     }
1681 :     elsif ($displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML') {
1682 :     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml}\n<TR>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n";
1683 :     while (@elements) {
1684 :     $out .= " \n\\begin{rawhtml}\n<TD> \n\\end{rawhtml}\n" . shift(@elements) . " \n\\begin{rawhtml}\n</TD> \n\\end{rawhtml}\n";
1685 :     }
1686 :     $out .= " \n\\begin{rawhtml}\n</TR> \n\\end{rawhtml}\n";
1687 :     }
1688 :     elsif ($main::displayMode eq 'HTML' || $main::displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng'||$displayMode eq 'HTML_img') {
1689 :     $out .= "<TR>\n";
1690 :     while (@elements) {
1691 :     $out .= "<TD>" . shift(@elements) . "</TD>";
1692 :     }
1693 :     $out .= "\n</TR>\n";
1694 :     }
1695 :     else {
1696 :     $out = "Error: PGchoicemacros: row: Unknown displayMode: $main::displayMode.\n";
1697 :     }
1698 :     $out;
1699 :     }
1700 :    
1701 :     =head2 Macros for displaying static images
1702 :    
1703 :     Usage:
1704 :     $string = image($image, width => 100, height => 100, tex_size => 800)
1705 :     $string = image([$image1, $image2], width => 100, height => 100, tex_size => 800)
1706 :     $string = caption($string);
1707 :     $string = imageRow([$image1, $image2 ], [$caption1, $caption2]);
1708 :     # produces a complete table with rows of pictures.
1709 :    
1710 :    
1711 :     =cut
1712 :    
1713 :     # More advanced macros
1714 :     sub image {
1715 :     my $image_ref = shift;
1716 :     my @opt = @_;
1717 :     unless (scalar(@opt) % 2 == 0 ) {
1718 :     warn "ERROR in image macro. A list of macros must be inclosed in square brackets.";
1719 :     }
1720 :     my %in_options = @opt;
1721 :     my %known_options = (
1722 :     width => 100,
1723 :     height => 100,
1724 :     tex_size => 800,
1725 :     );
1726 :     # handle options
1727 :     my %out_options = %known_options;
1728 :     foreach my $opt_name (keys %in_options) {
1729 :     if ( exists( $known_options{$opt_name} ) ) {
1730 :     $out_options{$opt_name} = $in_options{$opt_name} if exists( $in_options{$opt_name} ) ;
1731 :     } else {
1732 :     die "Option $opt_name not defined for image. " .
1733 :     "Default options are:<BR> ", display_options2(%known_options);
1734 :     }
1735 :     }
1736 :     my $width = $out_options{width};
1737 :     my $height = $out_options{height};
1738 :     my $tex_size = $out_options{tex_size};
1739 :     my $width_ratio = $tex_size*(.001);
1740 :     my @image_list = ();
1741 :    
1742 :     if (ref($image_ref) =~ /ARRAY/ ) {
1743 :     @image_list = @{$image_ref};
1744 :     } else {
1745 :     push(@image_list,$image_ref);
1746 :     }
1747 : apizer 1080
1748 : gage 1071 my @output_list = ();
1749 : sh002i 1050 while(@image_list) {
1750 :     my $imageURL = alias(shift @image_list);
1751 :     my $out="";
1752 : apizer 1080
1753 : sh002i 1050 if ($main::displayMode eq 'TeX') {
1754 :     my $imagePath = $imageURL; # in TeX mode, alias gives us a path, not a URL
1755 : gage 1251 if ($envir->{texDisposition} eq "pdf") {
1756 : sh002i 1050 # We're going to create PDF files with our TeX (using pdflatex), so
1757 :     # alias should have given us the path to a PNG image. What we need
1758 :     # to do is find out the dimmensions of this image, since pdflatex
1759 :     # is too dumb to live.
1760 : apizer 1080
1761 : sh002i 1050 #my ($height, $width) = getImageDimmensions($imagePath);
1762 :     ##warn "&image: $imagePath $height $width\n";
1763 :     #unless ($height and $width) {
1764 :     # warn "Couldn't get the dimmensions of image $imagePath.\n"
1765 :     #}
1766 :     #$out = "\\includegraphics[bb=0 0 $height $width,width=$width_ratio\\linewidth]{$imagePath}\n";
1767 :     $out = "\\includegraphics[width=$width_ratio\\linewidth]{$imagePath}\n";
1768 :     } else {
1769 :     # Since we're not creating PDF files, alias should have given us the
1770 :     # path to an EPS file. latex can get its dimmensions no problem!
1771 : apizer 1080
1772 : sh002i 1050 $out = "\\includegraphics[width=$width_ratio\\linewidth]{$imagePath}\n";
1773 :     }
1774 :     } elsif ($main::displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML') {
1775 :     $out = qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<A HREF= "$imageURL" TARGET="ZOOM"><IMG SRC="$imageURL" WIDTH="$width" HEIGHT="$height"></A>\n
1776 :     \\end{rawhtml}\n !
1777 :     } elsif ($main::displayMode eq 'HTML' || $main::displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_img') {
1778 :     $out = qq!<A HREF= "$imageURL" TARGET="ZOOM"><IMG SRC="$imageURL" WIDTH="$width" HEIGHT="$height"></A>
1779 :     !
1780 :     } else {
1781 :     $out = "Error: PGchoicemacros: image: Unknown displayMode: $main::displayMode.\n";
1782 :     }
1783 :     push(@output_list, $out);
1784 :     }
1785 :     return wantarray ? @output_list : $output_list[0];
1786 :     }
1787 :    
1788 :     # This is legacy code.
1789 :     sub images {
1790 :     my @in = @_;
1791 :     my @outlist = ();
1792 :     while (@in) {
1793 :     push(@outlist,&image( shift(@in) ) );
1794 :     }
1795 :     @outlist;
1796 :     }
1797 :    
1798 :    
1799 :     sub caption {
1800 :     my ($out) = @_;
1801 :     $out = " $out \n" if $main::displayMode eq 'TeX';
1802 :     $out = " $out " if $main::displayMode eq 'HTML';
1803 :     $out = " $out " if $main::displayMode eq 'HTML_tth';
1804 :     $out = " $out " if $main::displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng';
1805 :     $out = " $out " if $main::displayMode eq 'HTML_img';
1806 :     $out = " $out " if $main::displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML';
1807 :     $out;
1808 :     }
1809 :    
1810 :     sub captions {
1811 :     my @in = @_;
1812 :     my @outlist = ();
1813 :     while (@in) {
1814 :     push(@outlist,&caption( shift(@in) ) );
1815 :     }
1816 :     @outlist;
1817 :     }
1818 :    
1819 :     sub imageRow {
1820 :    
1821 :     my $pImages = shift;
1822 :     my $pCaptions=shift;
1823 :     my $out = "";
1824 :     my @images = @$pImages;
1825 :     my @captions = @$pCaptions;
1826 :     my $number = @images;
1827 :     # standard options
1828 :     my %options = ( 'tex_size' => 200, # width for fitting 4 across
1829 :     'height' => 100,
1830 :     'width' => 100,
1831 :     @_ # overwrite any default options
1832 :     );
1833 :    
1834 :     if ($main::displayMode eq 'TeX') {
1835 :     $out .= "\n\\par\\smallskip\\begin{center}\\begin{tabular}{" . "|c" x $number . "|} \\hline\n";
1836 :     while (@images) {
1837 :     $out .= &image( shift(@images),%options ) . '&';
1838 :     }
1839 :     chop($out);
1840 :     $out .= "\\\\ \\hline \n";
1841 :     while (@captions) {
1842 :     $out .= &caption( shift(@captions) ) . '&';
1843 :     }
1844 :     chop($out);
1845 :     $out .= "\\\\ \\hline \n\\end {tabular}\\end{center}\\par\\smallskip\n";
1846 :     } elsif ($main::displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML'){
1847 :    
1848 :     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} <TABLE BORDER=1><TR>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n";
1849 :     while (@images) {
1850 :     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} <TD>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n" . &image( shift(@images),%options )
1851 :     . "\n\\begin{rawhtml} </TD>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n" ;
1852 :     }
1853 :    
1854 :     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml}</TR><TR>\\end{rawhtml}\n";
1855 :     while (@captions) {
1856 :     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} <TH>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n".&caption( shift(@captions) )
1857 :     . "\n\\begin{rawhtml} </TH>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n" ;
1858 :     }
1859 :    
1860 :     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} </TR> </TABLE >\n\\end{rawhtml}";
1861 :     } elsif ($main::displayMode eq 'HTML' || $main::displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' || $main::displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng'|| $main::displayMode eq 'HTML_img'){
1862 :     $out .= "<P>\n <TABLE BORDER=2 CELLPADDING=3 CELLSPACING=2 ><TR ALIGN=CENTER VALIGN=MIDDLE>\n";
1863 :     while (@images) {
1864 :     $out .= " \n<TD>". &image( shift(@images),%options ) ."</TD>";
1865 :     }
1866 :     $out .= "</TR>\n<TR>";
1867 :     while (@captions) {
1868 :     $out .= " <TH>". &caption( shift(@captions) ) ."</TH>";
1869 :     }
1870 :     $out .= "\n</TR></TABLE></P>\n"
1871 :     }
1872 :     else {
1873 :     $out = "Error: PGchoicemacros: imageRow: Unknown languageMode: $main::displayMode.\n";
1874 :     warn $out;
1875 :     }
1876 :     $out;
1877 :     }
1878 :    
1879 :    
1880 :     ###########
1881 :     # Auxiliary macros
1882 :    
1883 :     sub display_options2{
1884 :     my %options = @_;
1885 :     my $out_string = "";
1886 :     foreach my $key (keys %options) {
1887 :     $out_string .= " $key => $options{$key},<BR>";
1888 :     }
1889 :     $out_string;
1890 :     }
1891 :    
1892 :    
1893 :     1;

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