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1 : sh002i 1050
2 : apizer 1080
3 : sh002i 1050 ####################################################################
4 :     # Copyright @ 1995-1998 University of Rochester
5 :     # All Rights Reserved
6 :     ####################################################################
7 :    
8 :     =head1 NAME
9 :    
10 :     PGbasicmacros.pl --- located in the courseScripts directory
11 :    
12 :     =head1 SYNPOSIS
13 :    
14 :    
15 :    
16 :     =head1 DESCRIPTION
17 :    
18 :    
19 :    
20 :     =cut
21 :    
22 :     # this is equivalent to use strict, but can be used within the Safe compartment.
23 :     BEGIN{
24 : gage 1267 be_strict;
25 : sh002i 1050 }
26 :    
27 :    
28 : gage 1251 my $displayMode;
29 : sh002i 1050
30 :     my ($PAR,
31 :     $BR,
32 :     $LQ,
33 :     $RQ,
34 :     $BM,
35 :     $EM,
36 :     $BDM,
37 :     $EDM,
38 :     $LTS,
39 :     $GTS,
40 :     $LTE,
41 :     $GTE,
42 :     $BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN,
43 :     $END_ONE_COLUMN,
44 :     $SOL,
45 :     $SOLUTION,
46 :     $HINT,
47 :     $US,
48 :     $SPACE,
49 :     $BBOLD,
50 : apizer 1080 $EBOLD,
51 : sh002i 1050 $BITALIC,
52 :     $EITALIC,
53 :     $BCENTER,
54 :     $ECENTER,
55 :     $HR,
56 :     $LBRACE,
57 :     $RBRACE,
58 :     $LB,
59 :     $RB,
60 :     $DOLLAR,
61 :     $PERCENT,
62 :     $CARET,
63 :     $PI,
64 :     $E,
65 :     @ALPHABET,
66 : gage 1251 $envir,
67 : gage 1253 $PG_random_generator,
68 : gage 1267 $inputs_ref,
69 : sh002i 1050 );
70 :    
71 :     sub _PGbasicmacros_init {
72 : gage 1251
73 :     # The big problem is that at compile time in the cached Safe compartment
74 :     # main:: has one definition, probably Safe::Root1::
75 :     # At runtime main has another definition Safe::Rootx:: where x is > 1
76 :    
77 :     # It is important to
78 :     # initialize the my variable version of $displayMode from the "runtime" version
79 :     # of main::displayMode
80 :    
81 :     $displayMode = main::PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::displayMode!);
82 :    
83 :     # This is initializes the remaining variables in the runtime main:: compartment.
84 :    
85 :     main::PG_restricted_eval( <<'EndOfFile');
86 : gage 1267 $displayMode = $displayMode;
87 : gage 1251
88 : gage 1267 $PAR = PAR();
89 :     $BR = BR();
90 : sh002i 1050 $main::LQ = LQ();
91 :     $main::RQ = RQ();
92 : gage 1267 $BM = BM();
93 :     $EM = EM();
94 : sh002i 1050 $main::BDM = BDM();
95 :     $main::EDM = EDM();
96 :     $main::LTS = LTS();
97 :     $main::GTS = GTS();
98 :     $main::LTE = LTE();
99 :     $main::GTE = GTE();
100 :     $main::BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN = BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN();
101 :     $main::END_ONE_COLUMN = END_ONE_COLUMN();
102 :     $main::SOL = SOLUTION_HEADING();
103 :     $main::SOLUTION = SOLUTION_HEADING();
104 :     $main::HINT = HINT_HEADING();
105 :     $main::US = US();
106 :     $main::SPACE = SPACE();
107 : gage 1267 $BBOLD = BBOLD();
108 :     $EBOLD = EBOLD();
109 : sh002i 1050 $main::BITALIC = BITALIC();
110 :     $main::EITALIC = EITALIC();
111 :     $main::BCENTER = BCENTER();
112 :     $main::ECENTER = ECENTER();
113 :     $main::HR = HR();
114 :     $main::LBRACE = LBRACE();
115 :     $main::RBRACE = RBRACE();
116 :     $main::LB = LB();
117 :     $main::RB = RB();
118 :     $main::DOLLAR = DOLLAR();
119 :     $main::PERCENT = PERCENT();
120 :     $main::CARET = CARET();
121 :     $main::PI = PI();
122 :     $main::E = E();
123 :     @main::ALPHABET = ('A'..'ZZ');
124 : apizer 1080
125 : gage 1251
126 :    
127 :     EndOfFile
128 :    
129 :     # Next we transfer the correct definitions in the main:: compartment to the local my variables
130 :     # This can't be done inside the eval above because my variables seem to be invisible inside the eval
131 :    
132 :    
133 : gage 1267 $PAR = $PAR;
134 :     $BR = $BR;
135 : gage 1251 $LQ = $main::LQ;
136 :     $RQ = $main::RQ;
137 : gage 1267 $BM = $BM;
138 :     $EM = $EM;
139 : gage 1251 $BDM = $main::BDM;
140 :     $EDM = $main::EDM;
141 :     $LTS = $main::LTS;
142 :     $GTS = $main::GTS;
143 :     $LTE = $main::LTE;
144 :     $GTE = $main::GTE;
145 :     $BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN = $main::BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN;
146 :     $END_ONE_COLUMN = $main::END_ONE_COLUMN;
147 :     $SOL = $main::SOLUTION_HEADING;
148 :     $SOLUTION = $main::SOLUTION_HEADING;
149 :     $HINT = $main::HINT_HEADING;
150 :     $US = $main::US;
151 :     $SPACE = $main::SPACE;
152 : gage 1267 $BBOLD = $BBOLD;
153 :     $EBOLD = $EBOLD;
154 : gage 1251 $HR = $main::HR;
155 :     $LBRACE = $main::LBRACE;
156 :     $RBRACE = $main::RBRACE;
157 :     $LB = $main::LB;
158 :     $RB = $main::RB;
159 :     $DOLLAR = $main::DOLLAR;
160 :     $PERCENT = $main::PERCENT;
161 :     $CARET = $main::CARET;
162 :     $PI = $main::PI;
163 :     $E = $main::E;
164 : sh002i 1050 @ALPHABET = ('A'..'ZZ');
165 :    
166 : gage 1251 # We initialize a local reference to the environment hash rather than transfer the entire hash
167 :     # This way is slightly more efficient.
168 : apizer 1080
169 : gage 1253 $envir = PG_restricted_eval(q!\%main::envir!);
170 :     $PG_random_generator = PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::PG_random_generator!);
171 : gage 1267 $inputs_ref = $envir{inputs_ref};
172 : gage 1251
173 : sh002i 1050 }
174 :    
175 :     =head2 Answer blank macros:
176 :    
177 :     These produce answer blanks of various sizes or pop up lists or radio answer buttons.
178 :     The names for the answer blanks are
179 :     generated implicitly.
180 :    
181 :     ans_rule( width )
182 :     tex_ans_rule( width )
183 :     ans_radio_buttons(value1=>label1, value2,label2 => value3,label3=>...)
184 :     pop_up_list(@list) # list consists of (value => label, PR => "Product rule",...)
185 :    
186 :     To indicate the checked position of radio buttons put a '%' in front of the value: C<ans_radio_buttons(1, 'Yes','%2','No')>
187 :     will have 'No' checked. C<tex_ans_rule> works inside math equations in C<HTML_tth> mode. It does not work in C<Latex2HTML> mode
188 :     since this mode produces gif pictures.
189 :    
190 :    
191 :     The following method is defined in F<PG.pl> for entering the answer evaluators corresponding
192 :     to answer rules with automatically generated names. The answer evaluators are matched with the
193 :     answer rules in the order in which they appear on the page.
194 :    
195 :     ANS(ans_evaluator1, ans_evaluator2,...);
196 :    
197 :     These are more primitive macros which produce answer blanks for specialized cases when complete
198 :     control over the matching of answers blanks and answer evaluators is desired.
199 :     The names of the answer blanks must be generated manually, and it is best if they do NOT begin
200 :     with the default answer prefix (currently AnSwEr).
201 :    
202 :     labeled_ans_rule(name, width) # an alias for NAMED_ANS_RULE where width defaults to 20 if omitted.
203 :    
204 :     NAMED_ANS_RULE(name, width)
205 :     NAMED_ANS_BOX(name, rows, cols)
206 :     NAMED_ANS_RADIO(name, value,label,)
207 :     NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION(name, value,label)
208 :     NAMED_ANS_RADIO_BUTTONS(name,value1,label1,value2,label2,...)
209 :     check_box('-name' =>answer5,'-value' =>'statement3','-label' =>'I loved this course!' )
210 :     NAMED_POP_UP_LIST($name, @list) # list consists of (value => tag, PR => "Product rule",...)
211 :    
212 :     (Name is the name of the variable, value is the value given to the variable when this option is selected,
213 :     and label is the text printed next to the button or check box. Check box variables can have multiple values.)
214 :    
215 :     NAMED_ANS_RADIO_BUTTONS creates a sequence of NAMED_ANS_RADIO and NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION items which
216 :     are output either as an array or, in scalar context, as the array glued together with spaces. It is
217 :     usually easier to use this than to manually construct the radio buttons by hand. However, sometimes
218 :     extra flexibility is desiredin which case:
219 :    
220 :     When entering radio buttons using the "NAMED" format, you should use NAMED_ANS_RADIO button for the first button
221 :     and then use NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION for the remaining buttons. NAMED_ANS_RADIO requires a matching answer evalutor,
222 :     while NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION does not. The name used for NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION should match the name
223 :     used for NAMED_ANS_RADIO (and the associated answer evaluator).
224 :    
225 :    
226 :     The following method is defined in F<PG.pl> for entering the answer evaluators corresponding
227 :     to answer rules with automatically generated names. The answer evaluators are matched with the
228 :     answer rules in the order in which they appear on the page.
229 :    
230 :     NAMED_ANS(name1 => ans_evaluator1, name2 => ans_evaluator2,...);
231 :    
232 :     These auxiliary macros are defined in PG.pl
233 :    
234 :    
235 :     NEW_ANS_NAME( number ); # produces a new answer blank name from a number by adding a prefix (AnSwEr)
236 :     # and registers this name as an implicitly labeled answer
237 :     # Its use is paired with each answer evaluator being entered using ANS()
238 :    
239 :     ANS_NUM_TO_NAME(number); # adds the prefix (AnSwEr) to the number, but does nothing else.
240 :    
241 :     RECORD_ANS_NAME( name ); # records the order in which the answer blank is rendered
242 :     # This is called by all of the constructs above, but must
243 :     # be called explicitly if an input blank is constructed explictly
244 :     # using HTML code.
245 :    
246 :     These are legacy macros:
247 :    
248 :     ANS_RULE( number, width ); # equivalent to NAMED_ANS_RULE( NEW_ANS_NAME(number), width)
249 :     ANS_BOX( question_number,height, width ); # equivalent to NAMED_ANS_BOX( NEW_ANS_NAME(number), height, width)
250 :     ANS_RADIO( question_number, value,tag ); # equivalent to NAMED_ANS_RADIO( NEW_ANS_NAME(number), value,tag)
251 :     ANS_RADIO_OPTION( question_number, value,tag ); # equivalent to NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION( ANS_NUM_TO_NAME(number), value,tag)
252 :    
253 :    
254 :     =cut
255 :    
256 : gage 1267
257 :    
258 : sh002i 1050 sub labeled_ans_rule { # syntactic sugar for NAMED_ANS_RULE
259 :     my($name,$col) = @_;
260 :     $col = 20 unless defined($col);
261 :     NAMED_ANS_RULE($name,$col);
262 :     }
263 :    
264 :     sub NAMED_ANS_RULE {
265 :     my($name,$col) = @_;
266 :     my $len = 0.07*$col;
267 :     my $answer_value = '';
268 : gage 1267 $answer_value = ${$inputs_ref}{$name} if defined(${$inputs_ref}{$name});
269 : sh002i 1050 if ($answer_value =~ /\0/ ) {
270 :     my @answers = split("\0", $answer_value);
271 :     $answer_value = shift(@answers); # use up the first answer
272 : gage 1267 PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::rh_sticky_answers{$name}=\@answers;!);
273 :     # store the rest -- beacuse this stores to a main:; variable
274 :     # it must be evaluated at run time
275 : sh002i 1050 $answer_value= '' unless defined($answer_value);
276 :     } elsif (ref($answer_value) eq 'ARRAY') {
277 :     my @answers = @{ $answer_value};
278 :     $answer_value = shift(@answers); # use up the first answer
279 : gage 1267 PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::rh_sticky_answers{$name}=\@answers;!);
280 :     # store the rest -- beacuse this stores to a main:; variable
281 :     # it must be evaluated at run time
282 : sh002i 1050 $answer_value= '' unless defined($answer_value);
283 : apizer 1080 }
284 :    
285 : sh002i 1050 $answer_value =~ tr/$@`//d; ## make sure student answers can not be interpolated by e.g. EV3
286 :     $name = RECORD_ANS_NAME($name);
287 :     MODES(
288 :     TeX => "\\mbox{\\parbox[t]{10pt}{\\hrulefill}}\\hrulefill\\quad ",
289 :     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME=\"$name\" VALUE = \"\">\n\\end{rawhtml}\n!,
290 :     HTML => "<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME=\"$name\" VALUE = \"$answer_value\">\n"
291 :     );
292 :     }
293 :    
294 :     sub NAMED_ANS_RULE_OPTION { # deprecated
295 :     &NAMED_ANS_RULE_EXTENSION;
296 :     }
297 :    
298 :     sub NAMED_ANS_RULE_EXTENSION {
299 :     my($name,$col) = @_;
300 :     my $len = 0.07*$col;
301 :     my $answer_value = '';
302 : gage 1267 $answer_value = ${$inputs_ref}{$name} if defined(${$inputs_ref}{$name});
303 :     if ( defined(PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::rh_sticky_answers{$name}!)) ) {
304 :     $answer_value = shift( @{PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::rh_sticky_answers{$name}!)});
305 : sh002i 1050 $answer_value = '' unless defined($answer_value);
306 :     }
307 :     $answer_value =~ tr/$@//d; ## make sure student answers can not be interpolated by e.g. EV3
308 :     MODES(
309 :     TeX => '\\hrulefill\\quad ',
310 :     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME=\"$name\" VALUE = \"\">\n\\end{rawhtml}\n!,
311 :     HTML => qq!<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME = "$name" VALUE = "$answer_value">\n!
312 :     );
313 :     }
314 :    
315 :     sub ANS_RULE { #deprecated
316 :     my($number,$col) = @_;
317 :     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME($number);
318 :     NAMED_ANS_RULE($name,$col);
319 :     }
320 :    
321 :    
322 :     sub NAMED_ANS_BOX {
323 :     my($name,$row,$col) = @_;
324 :     $row = 10 unless defined($row);
325 :     $col = 80 unless defined($col);
326 :     $name = RECORD_ANS_NAME($name);
327 :     my $len = 0.07*$col;
328 :     my $height = .07*$row;
329 :     my $answer_value = '';
330 : gage 1267 $answer_value = $inputs_ref->{$name} if defined( $inputs_ref->{$name} );
331 : sh002i 1050 $answer_value =~ tr/$@//d; ## make sure student answers can not be interpolated by e.g. EV3
332 :     my $out = M3(
333 :     qq!\\vskip $height in \\hrulefill\\quad !,
334 :     qq!\\begin{rawhtml}<TEXTAREA NAME="$name" ROWS="$row" COLS="$col"
335 :     WRAP="VIRTUAL">$answer_value</TEXTAREA>\\end{rawhtml}!,
336 :     qq!<TEXTAREA NAME="$name" ROWS="$row" COLS="$col"
337 :     WRAP="VIRTUAL">$answer_value</TEXTAREA>!
338 :     );
339 :     $out;
340 :     }
341 :    
342 :     sub ANS_BOX { #deprecated
343 :     my($number,$row,$col) = @_;
344 :     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME($number);
345 :     NAMED_ANS_BOX($name,$row,$col);
346 :     }
347 :    
348 :     sub NAMED_ANS_RADIO {
349 :     my $name = shift;
350 :     my $value = shift;
351 :     my $tag =shift;
352 :     $name = RECORD_ANS_NAME($name);
353 :     my $checked = '';
354 :     if ($value =~/^\%/) {
355 :     $value =~ s/^\%//;
356 :     $checked = 'CHECKED'
357 :     }
358 : gage 1267 if (defined($inputs_ref->{$name}) ) {
359 :     if ($inputs_ref->{$name} eq $value) {
360 : sh002i 1050 $checked = 'CHECKED'
361 :     } else {
362 :     $checked = '';
363 :     }
364 :    
365 :     }
366 :    
367 :     MODES(
368 :     TeX => qq!\\item{$tag}\n!,
369 :     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=RADIO NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>\\end{rawhtml}$tag!,
370 :     HTML => qq!<INPUT TYPE=RADIO NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>$tag!
371 :     );
372 :    
373 :     }
374 :    
375 :     sub NAMED_ANS_RADIO_OPTION { #deprecated
376 :     &NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION;
377 :     }
378 :    
379 :     sub NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION {
380 :     my $name = shift;
381 :     my $value = shift;
382 :     my $tag =shift;
383 :    
384 :    
385 :     my $checked = '';
386 :     if ($value =~/^\%/) {
387 :     $value =~ s/^\%//;
388 :     $checked = 'CHECKED'
389 :     }
390 : gage 1267 if (defined($inputs_ref->{$name}) ) {
391 :     if ($inputs_ref->{$name} eq $value) {
392 : sh002i 1050 $checked = 'CHECKED'
393 :     } else {
394 :     $checked = '';
395 :     }
396 :    
397 :     }
398 :    
399 :     MODES(
400 :     TeX => qq!\\item{$tag}\n!,
401 :     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=RADIO NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>\\end{rawhtml}$tag!,
402 :     HTML => qq!<INPUT TYPE=RADIO NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>$tag!
403 :     );
404 :    
405 :     }
406 :    
407 :     sub NAMED_ANS_RADIO_BUTTONS {
408 :     my $name =shift;
409 :     my $value = shift;
410 :     my $tag = shift;
411 :    
412 :    
413 :     my @out = ();
414 :     push(@out, NAMED_ANS_RADIO($name, $value,$tag));
415 :     my @buttons = @_;
416 :     while (@buttons) {
417 :     $value = shift @buttons; $tag = shift @buttons;
418 :     push(@out, NAMED_ANS_RADIO_OPTION($name, $value,$tag));
419 :     }
420 :     (wantarray) ? @out : join(" ",@out);
421 :     }
422 :     sub ANS_RADIO {
423 :     my $number = shift;
424 :     my $value = shift;
425 :     my $tag =shift;
426 :     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME($number);
427 :     NAMED_ANS_RADIO($name,$value,$tag);
428 :     }
429 :    
430 :     sub ANS_RADIO_OPTION {
431 :     my $number = shift;
432 :     my $value = shift;
433 :     my $tag =shift;
434 :    
435 :    
436 :     my $name = ANS_NUM_TO_NAME($number);
437 :     NAMED_ANS_RADIO_OPTION($name,$value,$tag);
438 :     }
439 :     sub ANS_RADIO_BUTTONS {
440 :     my $number =shift;
441 :     my $value = shift;
442 :     my $tag = shift;
443 :    
444 :    
445 :     my @out = ();
446 :     push(@out, ANS_RADIO($number, $value,$tag));
447 :     my @buttons = @_;
448 :     while (@buttons) {
449 :     $value = shift @buttons; $tag = shift @buttons;
450 :     push(@out, ANS_RADIO_OPTION($number, $value,$tag));
451 :     }
452 :     (wantarray) ? @out : join(" ",@out);
453 :     }
454 :    
455 :     sub NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX {
456 :     my $name = shift;
457 :     my $value = shift;
458 :     my $tag =shift;
459 :     $name = RECORD_ANS_NAME($name);
460 :    
461 :     my $checked = '';
462 :     if ($value =~/^\%/) {
463 :     $value =~ s/^\%//;
464 :     $checked = 'CHECKED'
465 :     }
466 :    
467 : gage 1267 if (defined($inputs_ref->{$name}) ) {
468 :     if ($inputs_ref->{$name} eq $value) {
469 : sh002i 1050 $checked = 'CHECKED'
470 :     }
471 :     else {
472 :     $checked = '';
473 :     }
474 :    
475 :     }
476 :    
477 :     MODES(
478 :     TeX => qq!\\item{$tag}\n!,
479 :     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=CHECKBOX NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>\\end{rawhtml}$tag!,
480 :     HTML => qq!<INPUT TYPE=CHECKBOX NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>$tag!
481 :     );
482 :    
483 :     }
484 :    
485 :     sub NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX_OPTION {
486 :     my $name = shift;
487 :     my $value = shift;
488 :     my $tag =shift;
489 :    
490 :     my $checked = '';
491 :     if ($value =~/^\%/) {
492 :     $value =~ s/^\%//;
493 :     $checked = 'CHECKED'
494 :     }
495 :    
496 : gage 1267 if (defined($inputs_ref->{$name}) ) {
497 :     if ($inputs_ref->{$name} eq $value) {
498 : sh002i 1050 $checked = 'CHECKED'
499 :     }
500 :     else {
501 :     $checked = '';
502 :     }
503 :    
504 :     }
505 :    
506 :     MODES(
507 :     TeX => qq!\\item{$tag}\n!,
508 :     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=CHECKBOX NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>\\end{rawhtml}$tag!,
509 :     HTML => qq!<INPUT TYPE=CHECKBOX NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>$tag!
510 :     );
511 :    
512 :     }
513 :    
514 :     sub NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX_BUTTONS {
515 :     my $name =shift;
516 :     my $value = shift;
517 :     my $tag = shift;
518 :    
519 :     my @out = ();
520 :     push(@out, NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX($name, $value,$tag));
521 :    
522 :     my @buttons = @_;
523 :     while (@buttons) {
524 :     $value = shift @buttons; $tag = shift @buttons;
525 :     push(@out, NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX_OPTION($name, $value,$tag));
526 :     }
527 :    
528 :     (wantarray) ? @out : join(" ",@out);
529 :     }
530 :    
531 :     sub ANS_CHECKBOX {
532 :     my $number = shift;
533 :     my $value = shift;
534 :     my $tag =shift;
535 :     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME($number);
536 :    
537 :     NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX($name,$value,$tag);
538 :     }
539 :    
540 :     sub ANS_CHECKBOX_OPTION {
541 :     my $number = shift;
542 :     my $value = shift;
543 :     my $tag =shift;
544 :     my $name = ANS_NUM_TO_NAME($number);
545 :    
546 :     NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX_OPTION($name,$value,$tag);
547 :     }
548 :    
549 :     sub ANS_CHECKBOX_BUTTONS {
550 :     my $number =shift;
551 :     my $value = shift;
552 :     my $tag = shift;
553 :    
554 :     my @out = ();
555 :     push(@out, ANS_CHECKBOX($number, $value, $tag));
556 :    
557 :     my @buttons = @_;
558 :     while (@buttons) {
559 :     $value = shift @buttons; $tag = shift @buttons;
560 :     push(@out, ANS_CHECKBOX_OPTION($number, $value,$tag));
561 :     }
562 :    
563 :     (wantarray) ? @out : join(" ",@out);
564 :     }
565 :    
566 :     sub ans_rule {
567 :     my $len = shift; # gives the optional length of the answer blank
568 :     $len = 20 unless $len ;
569 : gage 1267 my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME(inc_ans_rule_count());
570 : sh002i 1050 NAMED_ANS_RULE($name ,$len);
571 :     }
572 :     sub ans_rule_extension {
573 :     my $len = shift;
574 :     $len = 20 unless $len ;
575 : gage 1267 my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME(PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::ans_rule_count!)); # don't update the answer name
576 : sh002i 1050 NAMED_ANS_RULE($name ,$len);
577 :     }
578 :     sub ans_radio_buttons {
579 : gage 1267 my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME(inc_ans_rule_count());
580 : sh002i 1050 my @radio_buttons = NAMED_ANS_RADIO_BUTTONS($name, @_);
581 :    
582 :     if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
583 :     $radio_buttons[0] = "\n\\begin{itemize}\n" . $radio_buttons[0];
584 :     $radio_buttons[$#radio_buttons] .= "\n\\end{itemize}\n";
585 :     }
586 :    
587 :     (wantarray) ? @radio_buttons: join(" ", @radio_buttons);
588 :     }
589 :    
590 :     #added 6/14/2000 by David Etlinger
591 :     sub ans_checkbox {
592 : gage 1267 my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME( inc_ans_rule_count() );
593 : sh002i 1050 my @checkboxes = NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX_BUTTONS( $name, @_ );
594 :    
595 :     if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
596 :     $checkboxes[0] = "\n\\begin{itemize}\n" . $checkboxes[0];
597 :     $checkboxes[$#checkboxes] .= "\n\\end{itemize}\n";
598 :     }
599 :    
600 :     (wantarray) ? @checkboxes: join(" ", @checkboxes);
601 :     }
602 :    
603 :    
604 :     ## define a version of ans_rule which will work inside TeX math mode or display math mode -- at least for tth mode.
605 :     ## This is great for displayed fractions.
606 :     ## This will not work with latex2HTML mode since it creates gif equations.
607 :    
608 :     sub tex_ans_rule {
609 :     my $len = shift;
610 :     $len = 20 unless $len ;
611 : gage 1267 my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME(inc_ans_rule_count());
612 : sh002i 1050 my $answer_rule = NAMED_ANS_RULE($name ,$len); # we don't want to create three answer rules in different modes.
613 :     my $out = MODES(
614 :     'TeX' => $answer_rule,
615 :     'Latex2HTML' => '\\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
616 :     'HTML_tth' => '\\begin{rawhtml} '. $answer_rule.'\\end{rawhtml}',
617 :     'HTML_dpng' => '\\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
618 :     'HTML' => $answer_rule
619 :     );
620 : apizer 1080
621 : sh002i 1050 $out;
622 :     }
623 :     sub tex_ans_rule_extension {
624 :     my $len = shift;
625 :     $len = 20 unless $len ;
626 : gage 1267 my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME(PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::ans_rule_count!));
627 : sh002i 1050 my $answer_rule = NAMED_ANS_RULE($name ,$len); # we don't want to create three answer rules in different modes.
628 :     my $out = MODES(
629 :     'TeX' => $answer_rule,
630 :     'Latex2HTML' => '\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
631 :     'HTML_tth' => '\\begin{rawhtml} '. $answer_rule.'\\end{rawhtml}',
632 :     'HTML_dpng' => '\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
633 :     'HTML' => $answer_rule
634 :     );
635 : apizer 1080
636 : sh002i 1050 $out;
637 :     }
638 :     # still needs some cleanup.
639 :     sub NAMED_TEX_ANS_RULE {
640 :     my $name = shift;
641 :     my $len = shift;
642 :     $len = 20 unless $len ;
643 :     my $answer_rule = NAMED_ANS_RULE($name ,$len); # we don't want to create three answer rules in different modes.
644 :     my $out = MODES(
645 :     'TeX' => $answer_rule,
646 :     'Latex2HTML' => '\\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
647 :     'HTML_tth' => '\\begin{rawhtml} '. $answer_rule.'\\end{rawhtml}',
648 :     'HTML_dpng' => '\\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
649 :     'HTML' => $answer_rule
650 :     );
651 : apizer 1080
652 : sh002i 1050 $out;
653 :     }
654 :     sub NAMED_TEX_ANS_RULE_EXTENSION {
655 :     my $name = shift;
656 :     my $len = shift;
657 :     $len = 20 unless $len ;
658 :     my $answer_rule = NAMED_ANS_RULE_EXTENSION($name ,$len); # we don't want to create three answer rules in different modes.
659 :     my $out = MODES(
660 :     'TeX' => $answer_rule,
661 :     'Latex2HTML' => '\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
662 :     'HTML_tth' => '\\begin{rawhtml} '. $answer_rule.'\\end{rawhtml}',
663 :     'HTML_dpng' => '\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
664 :     'HTML' => $answer_rule
665 :     );
666 : apizer 1080
667 : sh002i 1050 $out;
668 :     }
669 :     sub ans_box {
670 :     my $row = shift;
671 :     my $col =shift;
672 :     $row = 5 unless $row;
673 :     $col = 80 unless $col;
674 : gage 1267 my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME(inc_ans_rule_count());
675 : sh002i 1050 NAMED_ANS_BOX($name ,$row,$col);
676 :     }
677 :    
678 :     #this is legacy code; use ans_checkbox instead
679 :     sub checkbox {
680 :     my %options = @_;
681 :     qq!<INPUT TYPE="checkbox" NAME="$options{'-name'}" VALUE="$options{'-value'}">$options{'-label'}!
682 :     }
683 :    
684 :    
685 :     sub NAMED_POP_UP_LIST {
686 :     my $name = shift;
687 :     my @list = @_;
688 :     $name = RECORD_ANS_NAME($name); # record answer name
689 :     my $answer_value = '';
690 : gage 1267 $answer_value = ${$inputs_ref}{$name} if defined(${$inputs_ref}{$name});
691 : sh002i 1050 my $out = "";
692 :     if ($displayMode eq 'HTML' or $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' or
693 :     $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng' or $displayMode eq 'HTML_img') {
694 :     $out = qq!<SELECT NAME = "$name" SIZE=1> \n!;
695 :     my $i;
696 :     foreach ($i=0; $i< @list; $i=$i+2) {
697 :     my $select_flag = ($list[$i] eq $answer_value) ? "SELECTED" : "";
698 :     $out .= qq!<OPTION $select_flag VALUE ="$list[$i]" > $list[$i+1] </OPTION>\n!;
699 :     };
700 :     $out .= " </SELECT>\n";
701 :     } elsif ( $displayMode eq "Latex2HTML") {
702 :     $out = qq! \\begin{rawhtml}<SELECT NAME = "$name" SIZE=1> \\end{rawhtml} \n !;
703 :     my $i;
704 :     foreach ($i=0; $i< @list; $i=$i+2) {
705 :     my $select_flag = ($list[$i] eq $answer_value) ? "SELECTED" : "";
706 :     $out .= qq!\\begin{rawhtml}<OPTION $select_flag VALUE ="$list[$i]" > $list[$i+1] </OPTION>\\end{rawhtml}\n!;
707 :     };
708 :     $out .= " \\begin{rawhtml}</SELECT>\\end{rawhtml}\n";
709 :     } elsif ( $displayMode eq "TeX") {
710 :     $out .= "\\fbox{?}";
711 :     }
712 :    
713 :     }
714 :    
715 :     sub pop_up_list {
716 :     my @list = @_;
717 : gage 1267 my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME(inc_ans_rule_count()); # get new answer name
718 : sh002i 1050 NAMED_POP_UP_LIST($name, @list);
719 :     }
720 :    
721 : lr003k 1120
722 :    
723 :     =head5 answer_matrix
724 :    
725 :     Usage \[ \{ answer_matrix(rows,columns,width_of_ans_rule, @options) \} \]
726 :    
727 :     Creates an array of answer blanks and passes it to display_matrix which returns
728 :     text which represents the matrix in TeX format used in math display mode. Answers
729 :     are then passed back to whatever answer evaluators you write at the end of the problem.
730 :     (note, if you have an m x n matrix, you will need mn answer evaluators, and they will be
731 :     returned to the evaluaters starting in the top left hand corner and proceed to the left
732 :     and then at the end moving down one row, just as you would read them.)
733 :    
734 :     The options are passed on to display_matrix.
735 :    
736 :    
737 :     =cut
738 :    
739 :    
740 :     sub answer_matrix{
741 :     my $m = shift;
742 :     my $n = shift;
743 :     my $width = shift;
744 :     my @options = @_;
745 :     my @array=();
746 :     for( my $i = 0; $i < $m; $i+=1)
747 :     {
748 :     my @row_array = ();
749 :    
750 :     for( my $i = 0; $i < $n; $i+=1)
751 :     {
752 :     push @row_array, ans_rule($width);
753 :     }
754 :     my $r_row_array = \@row_array;
755 :     push @array, $r_row_array;
756 :     }
757 : gage 1251 # display_matrix hasn't been loaded into the cache safe compartment
758 :     # so we need to refer to the subroutine in this way to make
759 :     # sure that main is defined correctly.
760 :     my $ra_local_display_matrix=PG_restricted_eval(q!\&main::display_matrix!);
761 :     &$ra_local_display_matrix( \@array, @options );
762 : lr003k 1120
763 :     }
764 :    
765 :     sub NAMED_ANS_ARRAY_EXTENSION{
766 :    
767 :     my $name = shift;
768 :     my $col = shift;
769 :     $col = 20 unless $col;
770 :     my $answer_value = '';
771 :    
772 : gage 1267 $answer_value = ${$inputs_ref}{$name} if defined(${$inputs_ref}{$name});
773 : lr003k 1120 if ($answer_value =~ /\0/ ) {
774 :     my @answers = split("\0", $answer_value);
775 :     $answer_value = shift(@answers);
776 :     $answer_value= '' unless defined($answer_value);
777 :     } elsif (ref($answer_value) eq 'ARRAY') {
778 :     my @answers = @{ $answer_value};
779 :     $answer_value = shift(@answers);
780 :     $answer_value= '' unless defined($answer_value);
781 :     }
782 :    
783 :     $answer_value =~ tr/$@`//d; ## make sure student answers can not be interpolated by e.g. EV3
784 :     MODES(
785 :     TeX => "\\mbox{\\parbox[t]{10pt}{\\hrulefill}}\\hrulefill\\quad ",
786 :     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME=\"$name\" VALUE = \"\">\n\\end{rawhtml}\n!,
787 :     HTML => "<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME=\"$name\" VALUE = \"$answer_value\">\n"
788 :     );
789 :     }
790 :    
791 :     sub ans_array{
792 :     my $m = shift;
793 :     my $n = shift;
794 :     my $col = shift;
795 :     $col = 20 unless $col;
796 : gage 1267 my $num = inc_ans_rule_count() ;
797 : lr003k 1120 my $name = NEW_ANS_ARRAY_NAME($num,0,0);
798 :     my @options = @_;
799 :     my @array=();
800 :     my $string;
801 :     my $answer_value = "";
802 :    
803 :     $array[0][0] = NAMED_ANS_RULE($name,$col);
804 :    
805 :     for( my $i = 1; $i < $n; $i+=1)
806 :     {
807 :     $name = NEW_ANS_ARRAY_NAME_EXTENSION($num,0,$i);
808 :     $array[0][$i] = NAMED_ANS_ARRAY_EXTENSION($name,$col);
809 :    
810 :     }
811 :    
812 :     for( my $j = 1; $j < $m; $j+=1 ){
813 :    
814 :     for( my $i = 0; $i < $n; $i+=1)
815 :     {
816 :     $name = NEW_ANS_ARRAY_NAME_EXTENSION($num,$j,$i);
817 :     $array[$j][$i] = NAMED_ANS_ARRAY_EXTENSION($name,$col);
818 :    
819 :     }
820 :    
821 :     }
822 : gage 1251 my $ra_local_display_matrix=PG_restricted_eval(q!\&main::display_matrix!);
823 :     &$ra_local_display_matrix( \@array, @options );
824 : lr003k 1120
825 :     }
826 :    
827 :     sub ans_array_extension{
828 :     my $m = shift;
829 :     my $n = shift;
830 :     my $col = shift;
831 :     $col = 20 unless $col;
832 : gage 1267 my $num = PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::ans_rule_count!);
833 : lr003k 1120 my @options = @_;
834 :     my $name;
835 :     my @array=();
836 :     my $string;
837 :     my $answer_value = "";
838 :    
839 :     for( my $j = 0; $j < $m; $j+=1 ){
840 :    
841 :     for( my $i = 0; $i < $n; $i+=1)
842 :     {
843 :     $name = NEW_ANS_ARRAY_NAME_EXTENSION($num,$j,$i);
844 :     $array[$j][$i] = NAMED_ANS_ARRAY_EXTENSION($name,$col);
845 :    
846 :     }
847 :    
848 :     }
849 : gage 1251 my $ra_local_display_matrix=PG_restricted_eval(q!\&main::display_matrix!);
850 :     &$ra_local_display_matrix( \@array, @options );
851 : lr003k 1120
852 :     }
853 :    
854 :    
855 : sh002i 1050 # end answer blank macros
856 :    
857 :     =head2 Hints and solutions macros
858 :    
859 :     solution('text','text2',...);
860 :     SOLUTION('text','text2',...); # equivalent to TEXT(solution(...));
861 :    
862 :     hint('text', 'text2', ...);
863 :     HINT('text', 'text2',...); # equivalent to TEXT("$BR$HINT" . hint(@_) . "$BR") if hint(@_);
864 :    
865 :     Solution prints its concatenated input when the check box named 'ShowSol' is set and
866 :     the time is after the answer date. The check box 'ShowSol' is visible only after the
867 :     answer date or when the problem is viewed by a professor.
868 :    
869 : gage 1251 $main::envir{'displaySolutionsQ'} is set to 1 when a solution is to be displayed.
870 : sh002i 1050
871 :     Hints are shown only after the number of attempts is greater than $:showHint
872 :     ($main::showHint defaults to 1) and the check box named 'ShowHint' is set. The check box
873 :     'ShowHint' is visible only after the number of attempts is greater than $main::showHint.
874 :    
875 : gage 1251 $main::envir{'displayHintsQ'} is set to 1 when a hint is to be displayed.
876 : sh002i 1050
877 :    
878 :     =cut
879 :    
880 :    
881 :    
882 :     # solution prints its input when $displaySolutionsQ is set.
883 :     # use as TEXT(solution("blah, blah");
884 :     # \$solutionExists
885 :     # is passed to processProblem which displays a "show Solution" button
886 :     # when a solution is available for viewing
887 :    
888 :    
889 :     sub solution {
890 :     my @in = @_;
891 :     my $out = '';
892 : gage 1267 PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::solutionExists =1!);
893 :     if (PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::envir{'displaySolutionsQ'}!)) {$out = join(' ',@in);}
894 : sh002i 1050 $out;
895 :     }
896 :    
897 :    
898 :     sub SOLUTION {
899 :     TEXT( solution(@_)) ;
900 :     }
901 :    
902 :    
903 :    
904 :     sub hint {
905 :     my @in = @_;
906 :     my $out = '';
907 : apizer 1080
908 : gage 1267 PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::hintExists =1;
909 :     $main::numOfAttempts = 0 unless defined($main::numOfAttempts);
910 :     !);
911 : sh002i 1050
912 : gage 1267 if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
913 : sh002i 1050 $out = ''; # do nothing since hints are not available for download
914 : gage 1267 } elsif (($envir->{'displayHintsQ'}) and
915 :     PG_restricted_eval(q!($main::numOfAttempts >= $main::showHint)!))
916 : apizer 1080
917 : sh002i 1050 ## the second test above prevents a hint being shown if a doctored form is submitted
918 : apizer 1080
919 : sh002i 1050 {$out = join(' ',@in);} # show hint
920 : apizer 1080
921 : sh002i 1050 $out ;
922 :     }
923 :    
924 :    
925 :     sub HINT {
926 : gage 1267 TEXT("$BR" . hint(@_) . "$BR") if hint(@_);
927 : sh002i 1050 }
928 :    
929 :    
930 :    
931 :     # End hints and solutions macros
932 :     #################################
933 :    
934 :     # Produces a random number between $begin and $end with increment 1.
935 :     # You do not have to worry about integer or floating point types.
936 :    
937 :     =head2 Pseudo-random number generator
938 :    
939 :     Usage:
940 :     random(0,5,.1) # produces a random number between 0 and 5 in increments of .1
941 :     non_zero_random(0,5,.1) # gives a non-zero random number
942 :    
943 :     list_random(2,3,5,6,7,8,10) # produces random value from the list
944 :     list_random(2,3, (5..8),10) # does the same thing
945 :    
946 :     SRAND(seed) # resets the main random generator -- use very cautiously
947 :    
948 :    
949 :     SRAND(time) will create a different problem everytime it is called. This makes it difficult
950 :     to check the answers :-).
951 :    
952 : gage 1251 SRAND($envir->{'inputs_ref'}->{'key'} ) will create a different problem for each login session.
953 : sh002i 1050 This is probably what is desired.
954 :    
955 :     =cut
956 :    
957 :    
958 :     sub random {
959 :     my ($begin, $end, $incr) = @_;
960 : gage 1267 $PG_random_generator->random($begin,$end,$incr);
961 : sh002i 1050 }
962 :    
963 :    
964 :     sub non_zero_random { ##gives a non-zero random number
965 :     my (@arguments)=@_;
966 :     my $a=0;
967 :     my $i=100; #safety counter
968 :     while ($a==0 && ( 0 < $i-- ) ) {
969 :     $a=random(@arguments);
970 :     }
971 :     $a;
972 :     }
973 :    
974 :     sub list_random {
975 :     my(@li) = @_;
976 :     return $li[random(1,scalar(@li))-1];
977 :     }
978 :    
979 :     sub SRAND { # resets the main random generator -- use cautiously
980 :     my $seed = shift;
981 : gage 1253 PG_random_generator -> srand($seed);
982 : sh002i 1050 }
983 :    
984 :     # display macros
985 :    
986 :     =head2 Display Macros
987 :    
988 :     These macros produce different output depending on the display mode being used to show
989 :     the problem on the screen, or whether the problem is being converted to TeX to produce
990 :     a hard copy output.
991 :    
992 :     MODES ( TeX => "Output this in TeX mode",
993 :     HTML => "output this in HTML mode",
994 :     HTML_tth => "output this in HTML_tth mode",
995 :     HTML_dpng => "output this in HTML_dpng mode",
996 :     Latex2HTML => "output this in Latex2HTML mode",
997 :     )
998 :    
999 :     TEX (tex_version, html_version) #obsolete
1000 :    
1001 :     M3 (tex_version, latex2html_version, html_version) #obsolete
1002 :    
1003 :    
1004 :    
1005 :     =cut
1006 :    
1007 :    
1008 :     sub TEX {
1009 :     my ($tex, $html ) = @_;
1010 :     MODES(TeX => $tex, HTML => $html, HTML_tth => $html, HTML_dpng => $html);
1011 :     }
1012 :    
1013 :    
1014 :     sub M3 {
1015 :     my($tex,$l2h,$html) = @_;
1016 :     MODES(TeX => $tex, Latex2HTML => $l2h, HTML => $html, HTML_tth => $html, HTML_dpng => $html);
1017 :     }
1018 :    
1019 :     # This replaces M3. You can add new modes at will to this one.
1020 :    
1021 :     sub MODES {
1022 :     my %options = @_;
1023 :     return $options{$displayMode}
1024 :     if defined( $options{$displayMode} );
1025 :    
1026 :     # default searches.
1027 :     if ($displayMode eq "Latex2HTML") {
1028 :     return $options{TeX}
1029 :     if defined( $options{TeX} );
1030 :     return $options{HTML}
1031 :     if defined( $options{HTML} );
1032 :     die " ERROR in using MODES: 'HTML' and 'TeX' options not defined for 'Latex2HTML'";
1033 :     }
1034 :    
1035 :     if ($displayMode eq "HTML_tth") {
1036 :     return $options{HTML}
1037 :     if defined( $options{HTML} );
1038 :     die " ERROR in using MODES: 'HTML' option not defined for HTML_tth";
1039 :    
1040 :     }
1041 : apizer 1080
1042 : sh002i 1050 if ($displayMode eq "HTML_img") {
1043 :     return $options{HTML_dpng} if defined $options{HTML_dpng};
1044 :     return $options{HTML_tth} if defined $options{HTML_tth};
1045 :     return $options{HTML} if defined $options{HTML};
1046 :     die " ERROR in using MODES: 'HTML' option not defined for HTML_img";
1047 :     }
1048 : apizer 1080
1049 : sh002i 1050 if ($displayMode eq "HTML_dpng") {
1050 :     return $options{HTML_tth}
1051 :     if defined( $options{HTML_tth} );
1052 :     return $options{HTML}
1053 :     if defined( $options{HTML} );
1054 :     die " ERROR in using MODES: 'HTML' option not defined for HTML_dpng";
1055 :    
1056 :     }
1057 :    
1058 :     # trap undefined errors
1059 :     die "ERROR in defining MODES: Can't find |$displayMode| among
1060 : apizer 1080 available options:" . join(" ", keys(%options) )
1061 : sh002i 1050 . " file " . __FILE__ ." line " . __LINE__."\n\n";
1062 :    
1063 :     }
1064 :    
1065 :    
1066 :     # end display macros
1067 :    
1068 :    
1069 :     =head2 Display constants
1070 :    
1071 :     @ALPHABET ALPHABET() capital letter alphabet -- ALPHABET[0] = 'A'
1072 :     $PAR PAR() paragraph character (\par or <p>)
1073 :     $BR BR() line break character
1074 :     $LQ LQ() left double quote
1075 :     $RQ RQ() right double quote
1076 :     $BM BM() begin math
1077 :     $EM EM() end math
1078 :     $BDM BDM() begin display math
1079 :     $EDM EDM() end display math
1080 :     $LTS LTS() strictly less than
1081 :     $GTS GTS() strictly greater than
1082 :     $LTE LTE() less than or equal
1083 :     $GTE GTE() greater than or equal
1084 :     $BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN() begin one-column mode
1085 :     $END_ONE_COLUMN END_ONE_COLUMN() end one-column mode
1086 :     $SOL SOLUTION_HEADING() solution headline
1087 :     $SOLUTION SOLUTION_HEADING() solution headline
1088 :     $HINT HINT_HEADING() hint headline
1089 :     $US US() underscore character
1090 :     $SPACE SPACE() space character (tex and latex only)
1091 :     $BBOLD BBOLD() begin bold typeface
1092 :     $EBOLD EBOLD() end bold typeface
1093 :     $BITALIC BITALIC() begin italic typeface
1094 :     $EITALIC EITALIC() end italic typeface
1095 :     $BCENTER BCENTER() begin centered environment
1096 : apizer 1080 $ECENTER ECENTER() end centered environment
1097 : sh002i 1050 $HR HR() horizontal rule
1098 :     $LBRACE LBRACE() left brace
1099 :     $LB LB () left brace
1100 :     $RBRACE RBRACE() right brace
1101 :     $RB RB () right brace
1102 :     $DOLLAR DOLLAR() a dollar sign
1103 :     $PERCENT PERCENT() a percent sign
1104 :     $CARET CARET() a caret sign
1105 :     $PI PI() the number pi
1106 :     $E E() the number e
1107 :    
1108 :     =cut
1109 :    
1110 :    
1111 :    
1112 :    
1113 :    
1114 :     # A utility variable. Notice that "B"=$ALPHABET[1] and
1115 :     # "ABCD"=@ALPHABET[0..3].
1116 :    
1117 :     sub ALPHABET {
1118 :     ('A'..'ZZ')[@_];
1119 :     }
1120 :    
1121 :     ###############################################################
1122 :     # Some constants which are different in tex and in HTML
1123 :     # The order of arguments is TeX, Latex2HTML, HTML
1124 :     sub PAR { MODES( TeX => '\\par ',Latex2HTML => '\\par ',HTML => '<P>' ); };
1125 :     sub BR { MODES( TeX => '\\par\\noindent ',Latex2HTML => '\\par\\noindent ',HTML => '<BR>'); };
1126 :     sub LQ { MODES( TeX => "``", Latex2HTML => '"', HTML => '&quot;' ); };
1127 :     sub RQ { MODES( TeX => "''", Latex2HTML => '"', HTML => '&quot;' ); };
1128 :     sub BM { MODES(TeX => '\\(', Latex2HTML => '\\(', HTML => ''); }; # begin math mode
1129 :     sub EM { MODES(TeX => '\\)', Latex2HTML => '\\)', HTML => ''); }; # end math mode
1130 :     sub BDM { MODES(TeX => '\\[', Latex2HTML => '\\[', HTML => '<P ALIGN=CENTER>'); }; #begin displayMath mode
1131 :     sub EDM { MODES(TeX => '\\]', Latex2HTML => '\\]', HTML => '</P>'); }; #end displayMath mode
1132 :     sub LTS { MODES(TeX => ' < ', Latex2HTML => ' \\lt ', HTML => '&lt;'); };
1133 :     sub GTS {MODES(TeX => ' > ', Latex2HTML => ' \\gt ', HTML => '&gt;'); };
1134 :     sub LTE { MODES(TeX => ' \\le ', Latex2HTML => ' \\le ', HTML => '&lt;=' ); };
1135 :     sub GTE { MODES(TeX => ' \\ge ', Latex2HTML => ' \\ge ', HTML => '&gt;'); };
1136 :     sub BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN { MODES(TeX => " \\end{multicols}\n", Latex2HTML => " ", HTML => " "); };
1137 :     sub END_ONE_COLUMN { MODES(TeX =>
1138 :     " \\begin{multicols}{2}\n\\columnwidth=\\linewidth\n",
1139 :     Latex2HTML => ' ', HTML => ' ');
1140 :    
1141 :     };
1142 :     sub SOLUTION_HEADING { MODES( TeX => '\\par {\\bf Solution:}',
1143 :     Latex2HTML => '\\par {\\bf Solution:}',
1144 :     HTML => '<P><B>Solution:</B>');
1145 :     };
1146 :     sub HINT_HEADING { MODES( TeX => "\\par {\\bf Hint:}", Latex2HTML => "\\par {\\bf Hint:}", HTML => "<P><B>Hint:</B>"); };
1147 :     sub US { MODES(TeX => '\\_', Latex2HTML => '\\_', HTML => '_');}; # underscore, e.g. file${US}name
1148 :     sub SPACE { MODES(TeX => '\\ ', Latex2HTML => '\\ ', HTML => '&nbsp;');}; # force a space in latex, doesn't force extra space in html
1149 :     sub BBOLD { MODES(TeX => '{\\bf ', Latex2HTML => '{\\bf ', HTML => '<B>'); };
1150 :     sub EBOLD { MODES( TeX => '}', Latex2HTML => '}',HTML => '</B>'); };
1151 :     sub BITALIC { MODES(TeX => '{\\it ', Latex2HTML => '{\\it ', HTML => '<I>'); };
1152 :     sub EITALIC { MODES(TeX => '} ', Latex2HTML => '} ', HTML => '</I>'); };
1153 :     sub BCENTER { MODES(TeX => '\\begin{center} ', Latex2HTML => ' \\begin{rawhtml} <div align="center"> \\end{rawhtml} ', HTML => '<div align="center">'); };
1154 :     sub ECENTER { MODES(TeX => '\\end{center} ', Latex2HTML => ' \\begin{rawhtml} </div> \\end{rawhtml} ', HTML => '</div>'); };
1155 :     sub HR { MODES(TeX => '\\par\\hrulefill\\par ', Latex2HTML => '\\begin{rawhtml} <HR> \\end{rawhtml}', HTML => '<HR>'); };
1156 :     sub LBRACE { MODES( TeX => '\{', Latex2HTML => '\\lbrace', HTML => '\{' , HTML_tth=> '\\lbrace' ); };
1157 :     sub RBRACE { MODES( TeX => '\}', Latex2HTML => '\\rbrace', HTML => '\}' , HTML_tth=> '\\rbrace',); };
1158 :     sub LB { MODES( TeX => '\{', Latex2HTML => '\\lbrace', HTML => '\{' , HTML_tth=> '\\lbrace' ); };
1159 :     sub RB { MODES( TeX => '\}', Latex2HTML => '\\rbrace', HTML => '\}' , HTML_tth=> '\\rbrace',); };
1160 :     sub DOLLAR { MODES( TeX => '\\$', Latex2HTML => '\\$', HTML => '$' ); };
1161 :     sub PERCENT { MODES( TeX => '\\%', Latex2HTML => '\\%', HTML => '%' ); };
1162 :     sub CARET { MODES( TeX => '\\verb+^+', Latex2HTML => '\\verb+^+', HTML => '^' ); };
1163 :     sub PI {4*atan2(1,1);};
1164 :     sub E {exp(1);};
1165 :    
1166 :     ###############################################################
1167 :     ## Evaluation macros
1168 :    
1169 :    
1170 :     =head2 TEXT macros
1171 :    
1172 :     Usage:
1173 :     TEXT(@text);
1174 :    
1175 :     This is the simplest way to print text from a problem. The strings in the array C<@text> are concatenated
1176 :     with spaces between them and printed out in the text of the problem. The text is not processed in any other way.
1177 :     C<TEXT> is defined in PG.pl.
1178 :    
1179 :     Usage:
1180 :     BEGIN_TEXT
1181 :     text.....
1182 :     END_TEXT
1183 :    
1184 :     This is the most common way to enter text into the problem. All of the text between BEGIN_TEXT and END_TEXT
1185 :     is processed by the C<EV3> macro described below and then printed using the C<TEXT> command. The two key words
1186 :     must appear on lines by themselves. The preprocessing that makes this construction work is done in F<PGtranslator.pm>.
1187 :     See C<EV3> below for details on the processing.
1188 :    
1189 :    
1190 :     =cut
1191 :    
1192 :     =head2 Evaluation macros
1193 :    
1194 :     =head3 EV3
1195 :    
1196 :     TEXT(EV3("This is a formulat \( \int_0^5 x^2 \, dx \) ");
1197 :     TEXT(EV3(@text));
1198 :    
1199 :     TEXT(EV3(<<'END_TEXT'));
1200 :     text stuff...
1201 :     END_TEXT
1202 :    
1203 :    
1204 :     The BEGIN_TEXT/END_TEXT construction is translated into the construction above by PGtranslator.pm. END_TEXT must appear
1205 :     on a line by itself and be left justified. (The << construction is known as a "here document" in UNIX and in PERL.)
1206 :    
1207 :     The single quotes around END_TEXT mean that no automatic interpolation of variables takes place in the text.
1208 :     Using EV3 with strings which have been evaluated by double quotes may lead to unexpected results.
1209 :    
1210 :    
1211 :     The evaluation macro E3 first evaluates perl code inside the braces: C<\{ code \}>.
1212 :     Any perl statment can be put inside the braces. The
1213 :     result of the evaluation (i.e. the last statement evaluated) replaces the C<\{ code \}> construction.
1214 :    
1215 :     Next interpolation of all variables (e.g. C<$var or @array> ) is performed.
1216 :    
1217 :     Then mathematical formulas in TeX are evaluated within the
1218 :     C<\( tex math mode \)> and
1219 :     C<\[ tex display math mode \] >
1220 :     constructions, in that order:
1221 :    
1222 :     =head3 FEQ
1223 :    
1224 :     FEQ($string); # processes and outputs the string
1225 :    
1226 :    
1227 :     The mathematical formulas are run through the macro C<FEQ> (Format EQuations) which performs
1228 :     several substitutions (see below).
1229 :     In C<HTML_tth> mode the resulting code is processed by tth to obtain an HTML version
1230 :     of the formula. (In the future processing by WebEQ may be added here as another option.)
1231 :     The Latex2HTML mode does nothing
1232 :     at this stage; it creates the entire problem before running it through
1233 :     TeX and creating the GIF images of the equations.
1234 :    
1235 :     The resulting string is output (and usually fed into TEXT to be printed in the problem).
1236 :    
1237 :     Usage:
1238 :    
1239 :     $string2 = FEQ($string1);
1240 :    
1241 :     This is a filter which is used to format equations by C<EV2> and C<EV3>, but can also be used on its own. It is best
1242 :     understood with an example.
1243 :    
1244 :     $string1 = "${a}x^2 + ${b}x + {$c:%.1f}"; $a = 3;, $b = -2; $c = -7.345;
1245 :    
1246 :     when interpolated becomes:
1247 :    
1248 :     $string1 = '3x^2 + -2x + {-7.345:%0.1f}
1249 :    
1250 :     FEQ first changes the number of decimal places displayed, so that the last term becomes -7.3 Then it removes the
1251 :     extraneous plus and minus signs, so that the final result is what you want:
1252 :    
1253 :     $string2 = '3x^2 - 2x -7.3';
1254 :    
1255 :     (The %0.1f construction
1256 :     is the same formatting convention used by Perl and nearly identical to the one used by the C printf statement. Some common
1257 :     usage: %0.3f 3 decimal places, fixed notation; %0.3e 3 significant figures exponential notation; %0.3g uses either fixed
1258 :     or exponential notation depending on the size of the number.)
1259 :    
1260 :     Two additional legacy formatting constructions are also supported:
1261 :    
1262 :     C<?{$c:%0.3f} > will give a number with 3 decimal places and a negative
1263 :     sign if the number is negative, no sign if the number is positive.
1264 :    
1265 :     C<!{$c:%0.3f}> determines the sign and prints it
1266 :     whether the number is positive or negative.
1267 :    
1268 :     =head3 EV2
1269 :    
1270 :     TEXT(EV2(@text));
1271 :    
1272 :     TEXT(EV2(<<END_OF_TEXT));
1273 :     text stuff...
1274 :     END_OF_TEXT
1275 :    
1276 :     This is a precursor to EV3. In this case the constants are interpolated first, before the evaluation of the \{ ...code...\}
1277 :     construct. This can lead to unexpected results. For example C<\{ join(" ", @text) \}> with C<@text = ("Hello","World");> becomes,
1278 :     after interpolation, C<\{ join(" ",Hello World) \}> which then causes an error when evaluated because Hello is a bare word.
1279 :     C<EV2> can still be useful if you allow for this, and in particular it works on double quoted strings, which lead to
1280 :     unexpected results with C<EV3>. Using single quoted strings with C<EV2> may lead to unexpected results.
1281 :    
1282 :     The unexpected results have to do with the number of times backslashed constructions have to be escaped. It is quite messy. For
1283 :     more details get a good Perl book and then read the code. :-)
1284 :    
1285 :    
1286 :    
1287 :    
1288 :     =cut
1289 :    
1290 :    
1291 :     sub ev_substring {
1292 :     my $string = shift;
1293 :     my $start_delim = shift;
1294 :     my $end_delim = shift;
1295 :     my $actionRef = shift;
1296 :     my ($eval_out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report)=();
1297 :     my $out = "";
1298 :     while ($string) {
1299 :     if ($string =~ /\Q$start_delim\E/s) {
1300 :     #print "$start_delim $end_delim evaluating_substring=$string<BR>";
1301 :     $string =~ s/^(.*?)\Q$start_delim\E//s; # get string up to next \{ ---treats string as a single line, ignoring returns
1302 :     $out .= $1;
1303 :     #print "$start_delim $end_delim substring_out=$out<BR>";
1304 :     $string =~ s/^(.*?)\Q$end_delim\E//s; # get perl code up to \} ---treats string as a single line, ignoring returns
1305 :     #print "$start_delim $end_delim evaluate_string=$1<BR>";
1306 :     ($eval_out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report) = &$actionRef($1);
1307 :     $eval_out = "$start_delim $eval_out $end_delim" if $PG_full_error_report;
1308 :     $out = $out . $eval_out;
1309 :     #print "$start_delim $end_delim new substring_out=$out<BR><p><BR>";
1310 : gage 1267 $out .="$PAR ERROR $0 in ev_substring, PGbasicmacros.pl:$PAR <PRE> $@ </PRE>$PAR" if $@;
1311 : sh002i 1050 }
1312 :     else {
1313 :     $out .= $string; # flush the last part of the string
1314 :     last;
1315 :     }
1316 :    
1317 :     }
1318 :     $out;
1319 :     }
1320 :     sub safe_ev {
1321 :     my ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report) = &old_safe_ev; # process input by old_safe_ev first
1322 :     $out =~s/\\/\\\\/g; # protect any new backslashes introduced.
1323 :     ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report)
1324 :     }
1325 :    
1326 :     sub old_safe_ev {
1327 :     my $in = shift;
1328 :     my ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report) = PG_restricted_eval("$in;");
1329 :     # the addition of the ; seems to provide better error reporting
1330 :     if ($PG_eval_errors) {
1331 :     my @errorLines = split("\n",$PG_eval_errors);
1332 : gage 1267 #$out = "<PRE>$PAR % ERROR in $0:old_safe_ev, PGbasicmacros.pl: $PAR % There is an error occuring inside evaluation brackets \\{ ...code... \\} $BR % somewhere in an EV2 or EV3 or BEGIN_TEXT block. $BR % Code evaluated:$BR $in $BR % $BR % $errorLines[0]\n % $errorLines[1]$BR % $BR % $BR </PRE> ";
1333 : sh002i 1050 warn " ERROR in old_safe_ev, PGbasicmacros.pl: <PRE>
1334 :     ## There is an error occuring inside evaluation brackets \\{ ...code... \\}
1335 :     ## somewhere in an EV2 or EV3 or BEGIN_TEXT block.
1336 :     ## Code evaluated:
1337 :     ## $in
1338 :     ##" .join("\n ", @errorLines). "
1339 : gage 1267 ##</PRE>$BR
1340 : sh002i 1050 ";
1341 : gage 1267 $out ="$PAR $BBOLD $in $EBOLD $PAR";
1342 : sh002i 1050
1343 :    
1344 :     }
1345 :    
1346 :     ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report);
1347 :     }
1348 :    
1349 :     sub FEQ { # Format EQuations
1350 :     my $in = shift;
1351 :     # formatting numbers -- the ?{} and !{} constructions
1352 :     $in =~s/\?\s*\{([.\-\$\w\d]+):?([%.\da-z]*)\}/${ \( &sspf($1,$2) )}/g;
1353 :     $in =~s/\!\s*\{([.\-\$\w\d]+):?([%.\da-z]*)\}/${ \( &spf($1,$2) )}/g;
1354 :    
1355 :     # more formatting numbers -- {number:format} constructions
1356 :     $in =~ s/\{(\s*[\+\-\d\.]+[eE]*[\+\-]*\d*):(\%\d*.\d*\w)}/${ \( &spf($1,$2) )}/g;
1357 :     $in =~ s/\+\s*\-/ - /g;
1358 :     $in =~ s/\-\s*\+/ - /g;
1359 :     $in =~ s/\+\s*\+/ + /g;
1360 :     $in =~ s/\-\s*\-/ + /g;
1361 :     $in;
1362 :     }
1363 :    
1364 :     #sub math_ev3 {
1365 :     # my $in = shift; #print "in=$in<BR>";
1366 :     # my ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report);
1367 :     # $in = FEQ($in);
1368 :     # $in =~ s/%/\\%/g; # % causes trouble in TeX and HTML_tth it usually (always?) indicates an error, not comment
1369 : gage 1267 # return("$BM $in $EM") unless ($displayMode eq 'HTML_tth');
1370 : sh002i 1050 # $in = "\\(" . $in . "\\)";
1371 :     # $out = tth($in);
1372 :     # ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report);
1373 :     #
1374 :     #}
1375 :     #
1376 :     #sub display_math_ev3 {
1377 :     # my $in = shift; #print "in=$in<BR>";
1378 :     # my ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report);
1379 :     # $in = FEQ($in);
1380 :     # $in =~ s/%/\\%/g;
1381 :     # return("$main::BDM $in $main::EDM") unless $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' ;
1382 :     # $in = "\\[" . $in . "\\]";
1383 :     # $out =tth($in);
1384 :     # ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report);
1385 :     #}
1386 :    
1387 :     sub math_ev3 {
1388 :     my $in = shift;
1389 :     return general_math_ev3($in, "inline");
1390 :     }
1391 :    
1392 :     sub display_math_ev3 {
1393 :     my $in = shift;
1394 :     return general_math_ev3($in, "display");
1395 :     }
1396 :    
1397 :     sub general_math_ev3 {
1398 :     my $in = shift;
1399 :     my $mode = shift || "inline";
1400 : apizer 1080
1401 : sh002i 1155 $in = FEQ($in); # Format EQuations
1402 :     $in =~ s/%/\\%/g; # avoid % becoming TeX comments
1403 :    
1404 :     # some modes want the delimiters, some don't
1405 :     my $in_delim = $mode eq "inline"
1406 :     ? "\\($in\\)"
1407 :     : "\\[$in\\]";
1408 :    
1409 : sh002i 1050 my $out;
1410 : gage 1071 if($displayMode eq "HTML_tth") {
1411 :     $out = tth($in_delim);
1412 :     } elsif ($displayMode eq "HTML_dpng") {
1413 : sh002i 1158 # for jj's version of ImageGenerator
1414 : gage 1251 $out = $envir->{'imagegen'}->add($in_delim);
1415 : sh002i 1158 # for my version of ImageGenerator
1416 : gage 1251 #$out = $envir->{'imagegen'}->add($in, $mode);
1417 : sh002i 1050 } elsif ($displayMode eq "HTML_img") {
1418 :     $out = math2img($in, $mode);
1419 :     } else {
1420 :     $out = "\\($in\\)" if $mode eq "inline";
1421 :     $out = "\\[$in\\]" if $mode eq "display";
1422 :     }
1423 :     return $out;
1424 :     }
1425 :    
1426 :     sub EV2 {
1427 :     my $string = join(" ",@_);
1428 :     # evaluate code inside of \{ \} (no nesting allowed)
1429 :     $string = ev_substring($string,"\\{","\\}",\&old_safe_ev);
1430 :     $string = ev_substring($string,"\\<","\\>",\&old_safe_ev);
1431 :     $string = ev_substring($string,"\\(","\\)",\&math_ev3);
1432 :     $string = ev_substring($string,"\\[","\\]",\&display_math_ev3);
1433 :     # macros for displaying math
1434 : gage 1267 $string =~ s/\\\(/$BM/g;
1435 :     $string =~ s/\\\)/$EM/g;
1436 :     $string =~ s/\\\[/$BDM/g;
1437 :     $string =~ s/\\\]/$EDM/g;
1438 : sh002i 1050 $string;
1439 :     }
1440 :    
1441 :     sub EV3{
1442 :     my $string = join(" ",@_);
1443 :     # evaluate code inside of \{ \} (no nesting allowed)
1444 :     $string = ev_substring($string,"\\\\{","\\\\}",\&safe_ev); # handles \{ \} in single quoted strings of PG files
1445 :     # interpolate variables
1446 :     my ($evaluated_string,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_errors) = PG_restricted_eval("<<END_OF_EVALUATION_STRING\n$string\nEND_OF_EVALUATION_STRING\n");
1447 :     if ($PG_eval_errors) {
1448 :     my @errorLines = split("\n",$PG_eval_errors);
1449 :     $string =~ s/</&lt;/g; $string =~ s/>/&gt;/g;
1450 : gage 1267 $evaluated_string = "<PRE>$PAR % ERROR in $0:EV3, PGbasicmacros.pl: $PAR % There is an error occuring in the following code:$BR $string $BR % $BR % $errorLines[0]\n % $errorLines[1]$BR % $BR % $BR </PRE> ";
1451 : sh002i 1050 $@="";
1452 :     }
1453 :     $string = $evaluated_string;
1454 :     $string = ev_substring($string,"\\(","\\)",\&math_ev3);
1455 :     $string = ev_substring($string,"\\[","\\]",\&display_math_ev3);
1456 :     $string;
1457 :     }
1458 :    
1459 :     =head2 Formatting macros
1460 :    
1461 :     beginproblem() # generates text listing number and the point value of
1462 :     # the problem. It will also print the file name containing
1463 :     # the problem for users listed in the PRINT_FILE_NAMES_FOR PG_environment
1464 :     # variable.
1465 :     OL(@array) # formats the array as an Ordered List ( <OL> </OL> ) enumerated by letters.
1466 :    
1467 :     htmlLink($url, $text)
1468 :     # Places a reference to the URL with the specified text in the problem.
1469 :     # A common usage is \{ htmlLink(alias('prob1_help.html') \}, 'for help')
1470 :     # where alias finds the full address of the prob1_help.html file in the same directory
1471 :     # as the problem file
1472 :     appletLink($url, $parameters)
1473 :     # For example
1474 :     # appletLink(q! archive="http: //webwork.math.rochester.edu/gage/xFunctions/xFunctions.zip"
1475 :     code="xFunctionsLauncher.class" width=100 height=14!,
1476 :     " parameter text goes here")
1477 :     # will link to xFunctions.
1478 :    
1479 :     low level:
1480 :    
1481 :     spf($number, $format) # prints the number with the given format
1482 :     sspf($number, $format) # prints the number with the given format, always including a sign.
1483 :     protect_underbar($string) # protects the underbar (class_name) in strings which may have to pass through TeX.
1484 :    
1485 :     =cut
1486 :    
1487 :     sub beginproblem {
1488 :     my $out = "";
1489 : gage 1267 my $problemValue = $envir->{problemValue};
1490 :     my $fileName = $envir->{problemValue};
1491 :     my $probNum = $envir->{probNum};
1492 :     my $TeXFileName = protect_underbar($envir->{fileName});
1493 :     my $l2hFileName = protect_underbar($envir->{fileName});
1494 : sh002i 1050 my %inlist;
1495 :     my $points ='pts';
1496 : gage 1267
1497 :     $points = 'pt' if $problemValue == 1;
1498 : sh002i 1050 ## Prepare header for the problem
1499 : gage 1251 grep($inlist{$_}++,@{ $envir->{'PRINT_FILE_NAMES_FOR'} });
1500 : gage 1267 if ( defined($inlist{$envir->{studentLogin}}) and ($inlist{$envir->{studentLogin}} > 0) ) {
1501 :     $out = &M3("\n\n\\medskip\\hrule\\smallskip\\par{\\bf ${probNum}.{\\footnotesize ($problemValue $points) $TeXFileName}}\\newline ",
1502 :     " \\begin{rawhtml} ($problemValue $points) <B>$l2hFileName</B><BR>\\end{rawhtml}",
1503 :     "($problemValue $points) <B>$fileName</B><BR>"
1504 : sh002i 1050 );
1505 :     } else {
1506 : gage 1267 $out = &M3("\n\n\\smallskip\\hrule\\smallskip\\par{\\bf ${probNum}.}($problemValue $points) ",
1507 :     "($problemValue $points) ",
1508 :     "($problemValue $points) "
1509 : sh002i 1050 );
1510 :     }
1511 :     $out;
1512 :    
1513 :     }
1514 :    
1515 :     # kludge to clean up path names
1516 :     ## allow underscore character in set and section names and also allows line breaks at /
1517 :     sub protect_underbar {
1518 :     my $in = shift;
1519 :     if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
1520 :    
1521 :     $in =~ s|_|\\\_|g;
1522 :     $in =~ s|/|\\\-/|g; # allows an optional hyphenation of the path (in tex)
1523 :     }
1524 :     $in;
1525 :     }
1526 :    
1527 :    
1528 :     # An example of a macro which prints out a list (with letters)
1529 :     sub OL {
1530 :     my(@array) = @_;
1531 :     my $i = 0;
1532 :     my $out= &M3(
1533 :     "\\begin{enumerate}\n",
1534 :     " \\begin{rawhtml} <OL TYPE=\"A\" VALUE=\"1\"> \\end{rawhtml} ",
1535 :     "<OL TYPE=\"A\" VALUE=\"1\">\n"
1536 :     ) ;
1537 :     my $elem;
1538 :     foreach $elem (@array) {
1539 :     $out .= MODES(
1540 : gage 1267 TeX=> "\\item[$ALPHABET[$i].] $elem\n",
1541 : sh002i 1050 Latex2HTML=> " \\begin{rawhtml} <LI> \\end{rawhtml} $elem ",
1542 :     HTML=> "<LI> $elem\n",
1543 :     HTML_dpng=> "<LI> $elem <br /> <br /> \n"
1544 :     );
1545 :     $i++;
1546 :     }
1547 :     $out .= &M3(
1548 :     "\\end{enumerate}\n",
1549 :     " \\begin{rawhtml} </OL>\n \\end{rawhtml} ",
1550 :     "</OL>\n"
1551 :     ) ;
1552 :     }
1553 :    
1554 :     sub htmlLink {
1555 :     my $url = shift;
1556 :     my $text = shift;
1557 :     my $options = shift;
1558 :     $options = "" unless defined($options);
1559 : gage 1267 return "$BBOLD\[ broken link: $text \] $EBOLD" unless defined($url);
1560 : sh002i 1050 M3( "{\\bf \\underline{$text} }",
1561 :     "\\begin{rawhtml} <A HREF=\"$url\" $options> $text </A>\\end{rawhtml}",
1562 :     "<A HREF=\"$url\" $options> $text </A>"
1563 :     );
1564 :     }
1565 : gage 1267
1566 : sh002i 1050 sub appletLink {
1567 :     my $url = shift;
1568 :     my $options = shift;
1569 :     $options = "" unless defined($options);
1570 :     M3( "{\\bf \\underline{APPLET} }",
1571 :     "\\begin{rawhtml} <APPLET $url> $options </APPLET>\\end{rawhtml}",
1572 :     "<APPLET $url> $options </APPLET>"
1573 :     );
1574 :     }
1575 :     sub spf {
1576 :     my($number,$format) = @_; # attention, the order of format and number are reversed
1577 :     $format = "%4.3g" unless $format; # default value for format
1578 :     sprintf($format, $number);
1579 :     }
1580 :     sub sspf {
1581 :     my($number,$format) = @_; # attention, the order of format and number are reversed
1582 :     $format = "%4.3g" unless $format; # default value for format
1583 :     my $sign = $number>=0 ? " + " : " - ";
1584 :     $number = $number>=0 ? $number : -$number;
1585 :     $sign .sprintf($format, $number);
1586 :     }
1587 :    
1588 :     =head2 Sorting and other list macros
1589 :    
1590 :    
1591 :    
1592 :     Usage:
1593 :     lex_sort(@list); # outputs list in lexigraphic (alphabetical) order
1594 :     num_sort(@list); # outputs list in numerical order
1595 :     uniq( @list); # outputs a list with no duplicates. Order is unspecified.
1596 :    
1597 :     PGsort( \&sort_subroutine, @list);
1598 :     # &sort_subroutine defines order. It's output must be -1,0 or 1.
1599 :    
1600 :     =cut
1601 :    
1602 :     # uniq gives unique elements of a list:
1603 :     sub uniq {
1604 :     my (@in) =@_;
1605 :     my %temp = ();
1606 :     while (@in) {
1607 :     $temp{shift(@in)}++;
1608 :     }
1609 :     my @out = keys %temp; # sort is causing trouble with Safe.??
1610 :     @out;
1611 :     }
1612 :    
1613 :     sub lex_sort {
1614 : apizer 1080 PGsort sub {$_[0] cmp $_[1]}, @_;
1615 : sh002i 1050 }
1616 :     sub num_sort {
1617 :     PGsort sub {$_[0] <=> $_[1]}, @_;
1618 :     }
1619 :    
1620 :    
1621 :     =head2 Macros for handling tables
1622 :    
1623 :     Usage:
1624 :     begintable( number_of_columns_in_table)
1625 :     row(@dataelements)
1626 :     endtable()
1627 :    
1628 :     Example of useage:
1629 :    
1630 :     BEGIN_TEXT
1631 :     This problem tests calculating new functions from old ones:$BR
1632 :     From the table below calculate the quantities asked for:$BR
1633 :     \{begintable(scalar(@firstrow)+1)\}
1634 :     \{row(" \(x\) ",@firstrow)\}
1635 :     \{row(" \(f(x)\) ", @secondrow)\}
1636 :     \{row(" \(g(x)\) ", @thirdrow)\}
1637 :     \{row(" \(f'(x)\) ", @fourthrow)\}
1638 :     \{row(" \(g'(x)\) ", @fifthrow)\}
1639 :     \{endtable()\}
1640 :    
1641 :     (The arrays contain numbers which are placed in the table.)
1642 :    
1643 :     END_TEXT
1644 :    
1645 :     =cut
1646 :    
1647 :     sub begintable {
1648 :     my ($number)=shift; #number of columns in table
1649 :     my %options = @_;
1650 :     warn "begintable(cols) requires a number indicating the number of columns" unless defined($number);
1651 :     my $out = "";
1652 :     if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
1653 :     $out .= "\n\\par\\smallskip\\begin{center}\\begin{tabular}{" . "|c" x $number . "|} \\hline\n";
1654 :     }
1655 :     elsif ($displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML') {
1656 :     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} <TABLE , BORDER=1>\n\\end{rawhtml}";
1657 :     }
1658 :     elsif ($displayMode eq 'HTML' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_img') {
1659 :     $out .= "<TABLE BORDER=1>\n"
1660 :     }
1661 : apizer 1080 else {
1662 : sh002i 1050 $out = "Error: PGchoicemacros: begintable: Unknown displayMode: $displayMode.\n";
1663 :     }
1664 :     $out;
1665 :     }
1666 :    
1667 :     sub endtable {
1668 :     my $out = "";
1669 :     if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
1670 :     $out .= "\n\\end {tabular}\\end{center}\\par\\smallskip\n";
1671 :     }
1672 :     elsif ($displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML') {
1673 :     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} </TABLE >\n\\end{rawhtml}";
1674 :     }
1675 :     elsif ($displayMode eq 'HTML' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng' ||$displayMode eq 'HTML_img') {
1676 :     $out .= "</TABLE>\n";
1677 :     }
1678 :     else {
1679 :     $out = "Error: PGchoicemacros: endtable: Unknown displayMode: $displayMode.\n";
1680 :     }
1681 :     $out;
1682 :     }
1683 :    
1684 :    
1685 :     sub row {
1686 :     my @elements = @_;
1687 :     my $out = "";
1688 :     if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
1689 :     while (@elements) {
1690 :     $out .= shift(@elements) . " &";
1691 :     }
1692 :     chop($out); # remove last &
1693 :     $out .= "\\\\ \\hline \n";
1694 :     # carriage returns must be added manually for tex
1695 :     }
1696 :     elsif ($displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML') {
1697 :     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml}\n<TR>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n";
1698 :     while (@elements) {
1699 :     $out .= " \n\\begin{rawhtml}\n<TD> \n\\end{rawhtml}\n" . shift(@elements) . " \n\\begin{rawhtml}\n</TD> \n\\end{rawhtml}\n";
1700 :     }
1701 :     $out .= " \n\\begin{rawhtml}\n</TR> \n\\end{rawhtml}\n";
1702 :     }
1703 : gage 1267 elsif ($displayMode eq 'HTML' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng'||$displayMode eq 'HTML_img') {
1704 : sh002i 1050 $out .= "<TR>\n";
1705 :     while (@elements) {
1706 :     $out .= "<TD>" . shift(@elements) . "</TD>";
1707 :     }
1708 :     $out .= "\n</TR>\n";
1709 :     }
1710 :     else {
1711 : gage 1267 $out = "Error: PGchoicemacros: row: Unknown displayMode: $displayMode.\n";
1712 : sh002i 1050 }
1713 :     $out;
1714 :     }
1715 :    
1716 :     =head2 Macros for displaying static images
1717 :    
1718 :     Usage:
1719 :     $string = image($image, width => 100, height => 100, tex_size => 800)
1720 :     $string = image([$image1, $image2], width => 100, height => 100, tex_size => 800)
1721 :     $string = caption($string);
1722 :     $string = imageRow([$image1, $image2 ], [$caption1, $caption2]);
1723 :     # produces a complete table with rows of pictures.
1724 :    
1725 :    
1726 :     =cut
1727 :    
1728 :     # More advanced macros
1729 :     sub image {
1730 :     my $image_ref = shift;
1731 :     my @opt = @_;
1732 :     unless (scalar(@opt) % 2 == 0 ) {
1733 :     warn "ERROR in image macro. A list of macros must be inclosed in square brackets.";
1734 :     }
1735 :     my %in_options = @opt;
1736 :     my %known_options = (
1737 :     width => 100,
1738 :     height => 100,
1739 :     tex_size => 800,
1740 :     );
1741 :     # handle options
1742 :     my %out_options = %known_options;
1743 :     foreach my $opt_name (keys %in_options) {
1744 :     if ( exists( $known_options{$opt_name} ) ) {
1745 :     $out_options{$opt_name} = $in_options{$opt_name} if exists( $in_options{$opt_name} ) ;
1746 :     } else {
1747 :     die "Option $opt_name not defined for image. " .
1748 :     "Default options are:<BR> ", display_options2(%known_options);
1749 :     }
1750 :     }
1751 :     my $width = $out_options{width};
1752 :     my $height = $out_options{height};
1753 :     my $tex_size = $out_options{tex_size};
1754 :     my $width_ratio = $tex_size*(.001);
1755 :     my @image_list = ();
1756 :    
1757 :     if (ref($image_ref) =~ /ARRAY/ ) {
1758 :     @image_list = @{$image_ref};
1759 :     } else {
1760 :     push(@image_list,$image_ref);
1761 :     }
1762 : apizer 1080
1763 : gage 1071 my @output_list = ();
1764 : sh002i 1050 while(@image_list) {
1765 :     my $imageURL = alias(shift @image_list);
1766 :     my $out="";
1767 : apizer 1080
1768 : gage 1267 if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
1769 : sh002i 1050 my $imagePath = $imageURL; # in TeX mode, alias gives us a path, not a URL
1770 : gage 1251 if ($envir->{texDisposition} eq "pdf") {
1771 : sh002i 1050 # We're going to create PDF files with our TeX (using pdflatex), so
1772 :     # alias should have given us the path to a PNG image. What we need
1773 :     # to do is find out the dimmensions of this image, since pdflatex
1774 :     # is too dumb to live.
1775 : apizer 1080
1776 : sh002i 1050 #my ($height, $width) = getImageDimmensions($imagePath);
1777 :     ##warn "&image: $imagePath $height $width\n";
1778 :     #unless ($height and $width) {
1779 :     # warn "Couldn't get the dimmensions of image $imagePath.\n"
1780 :     #}
1781 :     #$out = "\\includegraphics[bb=0 0 $height $width,width=$width_ratio\\linewidth]{$imagePath}\n";
1782 :     $out = "\\includegraphics[width=$width_ratio\\linewidth]{$imagePath}\n";
1783 :     } else {
1784 :     # Since we're not creating PDF files, alias should have given us the
1785 :     # path to an EPS file. latex can get its dimmensions no problem!
1786 : apizer 1080
1787 : sh002i 1050 $out = "\\includegraphics[width=$width_ratio\\linewidth]{$imagePath}\n";
1788 :     }
1789 : gage 1267 } elsif ($displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML') {
1790 : sh002i 1050 $out = qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<A HREF= "$imageURL" TARGET="ZOOM"><IMG SRC="$imageURL" WIDTH="$width" HEIGHT="$height"></A>\n
1791 :     \\end{rawhtml}\n !
1792 : gage 1267 } elsif ($displayMode eq 'HTML' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_img') {
1793 : sh002i 1050 $out = qq!<A HREF= "$imageURL" TARGET="ZOOM"><IMG SRC="$imageURL" WIDTH="$width" HEIGHT="$height"></A>
1794 :     !
1795 :     } else {
1796 : gage 1267 $out = "Error: PGchoicemacros: image: Unknown displayMode: $displayMode.\n";
1797 : sh002i 1050 }
1798 :     push(@output_list, $out);
1799 :     }
1800 :     return wantarray ? @output_list : $output_list[0];
1801 :     }
1802 :    
1803 :     # This is legacy code.
1804 :     sub images {
1805 :     my @in = @_;
1806 :     my @outlist = ();
1807 :     while (@in) {
1808 :     push(@outlist,&image( shift(@in) ) );
1809 :     }
1810 :     @outlist;
1811 :     }
1812 :    
1813 :    
1814 :     sub caption {
1815 :     my ($out) = @_;
1816 : gage 1267 $out = " $out \n" if $displayMode eq 'TeX';
1817 :     $out = " $out " if $displayMode eq 'HTML';
1818 :     $out = " $out " if $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth';
1819 :     $out = " $out " if $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng';
1820 :     $out = " $out " if $displayMode eq 'HTML_img';
1821 :     $out = " $out " if $displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML';
1822 : sh002i 1050 $out;
1823 :     }
1824 :    
1825 :     sub captions {
1826 :     my @in = @_;
1827 :     my @outlist = ();
1828 :     while (@in) {
1829 :     push(@outlist,&caption( shift(@in) ) );
1830 :     }
1831 :     @outlist;
1832 :     }
1833 :    
1834 :     sub imageRow {
1835 :    
1836 :     my $pImages = shift;
1837 :     my $pCaptions=shift;
1838 :     my $out = "";
1839 :     my @images = @$pImages;
1840 :     my @captions = @$pCaptions;
1841 :     my $number = @images;
1842 :     # standard options
1843 :     my %options = ( 'tex_size' => 200, # width for fitting 4 across
1844 :     'height' => 100,
1845 :     'width' => 100,
1846 :     @_ # overwrite any default options
1847 :     );
1848 :    
1849 : gage 1267 if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
1850 : sh002i 1050 $out .= "\n\\par\\smallskip\\begin{center}\\begin{tabular}{" . "|c" x $number . "|} \\hline\n";
1851 :     while (@images) {
1852 :     $out .= &image( shift(@images),%options ) . '&';
1853 :     }
1854 :     chop($out);
1855 :     $out .= "\\\\ \\hline \n";
1856 :     while (@captions) {
1857 :     $out .= &caption( shift(@captions) ) . '&';
1858 :     }
1859 :     chop($out);
1860 :     $out .= "\\\\ \\hline \n\\end {tabular}\\end{center}\\par\\smallskip\n";
1861 : gage 1267 } elsif ($displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML'){
1862 : sh002i 1050
1863 :     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} <TABLE BORDER=1><TR>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n";
1864 :     while (@images) {
1865 :     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} <TD>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n" . &image( shift(@images),%options )
1866 :     . "\n\\begin{rawhtml} </TD>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n" ;
1867 :     }
1868 :    
1869 :     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml}</TR><TR>\\end{rawhtml}\n";
1870 :     while (@captions) {
1871 :     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} <TH>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n".&caption( shift(@captions) )
1872 :     . "\n\\begin{rawhtml} </TH>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n" ;
1873 :     }
1874 :    
1875 :     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} </TR> </TABLE >\n\\end{rawhtml}";
1876 : gage 1267 } elsif ($displayMode eq 'HTML' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng'|| $displayMode eq 'HTML_img'){
1877 : sh002i 1050 $out .= "<P>\n <TABLE BORDER=2 CELLPADDING=3 CELLSPACING=2 ><TR ALIGN=CENTER VALIGN=MIDDLE>\n";
1878 :     while (@images) {
1879 :     $out .= " \n<TD>". &image( shift(@images),%options ) ."</TD>";
1880 :     }
1881 :     $out .= "</TR>\n<TR>";
1882 :     while (@captions) {
1883 :     $out .= " <TH>". &caption( shift(@captions) ) ."</TH>";
1884 :     }
1885 :     $out .= "\n</TR></TABLE></P>\n"
1886 :     }
1887 :     else {
1888 : gage 1267 $out = "Error: PGchoicemacros: imageRow: Unknown languageMode: $displayMode.\n";
1889 : sh002i 1050 warn $out;
1890 :     }
1891 :     $out;
1892 :     }
1893 :    
1894 :    
1895 :     ###########
1896 :     # Auxiliary macros
1897 :    
1898 :     sub display_options2{
1899 :     my %options = @_;
1900 :     my $out_string = "";
1901 :     foreach my $key (keys %options) {
1902 :     $out_string .= " $key => $options{$key},<BR>";
1903 :     }
1904 :     $out_string;
1905 :     }
1906 :    
1907 :    
1908 :     1;

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