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Revision 2392 - (download) (as text) (annotate)
Thu Jun 24 21:00:26 2004 UTC (15 years, 6 months ago) by dpvc
File size: 66445 byte(s)
Removed skip and rule from problem header generated in TeX mode here,
and let the snippets handle it (they were producing redundent rules).

Also removed some unwanted spaces in htmllink().

(Accidentally committed experimental change to dangerousMacros.pl, and
don't know how to prevent it at this point, so I'll commit a change
back to the original in a moment.)

    1 
    2 
    3 ####################################################################
    4 # Copyright @ 1995-1998 University of Rochester
    5 # All Rights Reserved
    6 ####################################################################
    7 
    8 =head1 NAME
    9 
   10     PGbasicmacros.pl --- located in the courseScripts directory
   11 
   12 =head1 SYNPOSIS
   13 
   14 
   15 
   16 =head1 DESCRIPTION
   17 
   18 
   19 
   20 =cut
   21 
   22 # this is equivalent to use strict, but can be used within the Safe compartment.
   23 BEGIN{
   24   be_strict;
   25 }
   26 
   27 
   28 my $displayMode;
   29 
   30 my ($PAR,
   31   $BR,
   32   $LQ,
   33   $RQ,
   34   $BM,
   35   $EM,
   36   $BDM,
   37   $EDM,
   38   $LTS,
   39   $GTS,
   40   $LTE,
   41   $GTE,
   42   $BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN,
   43   $END_ONE_COLUMN,
   44   $SOL,
   45   $SOLUTION,
   46   $HINT,
   47   $US,
   48   $SPACE,
   49   $BBOLD,
   50   $EBOLD,
   51   $BITALIC,
   52   $EITALIC,
   53   $BCENTER,
   54   $ECENTER,
   55   $HR,
   56   $LBRACE,
   57   $RBRACE,
   58   $LB,
   59   $RB,
   60   $DOLLAR,
   61   $PERCENT,
   62   $CARET,
   63   $PI,
   64   $E,
   65   @ALPHABET,
   66   $envir,
   67   $PG_random_generator,
   68   $inputs_ref,
   69   $rh_sticky_answers,
   70   $r_ans_rule_count,
   71   );
   72 
   73 sub _PGbasicmacros_init {
   74 
   75     # The big problem is that at compile time in the cached Safe compartment
   76     # main:: has one definition, probably Safe::Root1::
   77     # At runtime main has another definition Safe::Rootx:: where x is > 1
   78 
   79     # It is important to
   80     # initialize the my variable version of $displayMode from the "runtime" version
   81     # of main::displayMode
   82 
   83     $displayMode         =    main::PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::displayMode!);
   84 
   85 # This is initializes the remaining variables in the runtime main:: compartment.
   86 
   87 main::PG_restricted_eval( <<'EndOfFile');
   88     $displayMode            = $displayMode;
   89 
   90   $main::PAR        = PAR();
   91   $main::BR       = BR();
   92   $main::LQ       = LQ();
   93   $main::RQ       = RQ();
   94   $main::BM       = BM();
   95   $main::EM       = EM();
   96   $main::BDM        = BDM();
   97   $main::EDM        = EDM();
   98   $main::LTS        = LTS();
   99   $main::GTS        = GTS();
  100   $main::LTE        = LTE();
  101   $main::GTE        = GTE();
  102   $main::BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN = BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN();
  103   $main::END_ONE_COLUMN = END_ONE_COLUMN();
  104   $main::SOL        = SOLUTION_HEADING();
  105   $main::SOLUTION     = SOLUTION_HEADING();
  106   $main::HINT       = HINT_HEADING();
  107   $main::US       = US();
  108   $main::SPACE      = SPACE();
  109   $main::BBOLD      = BBOLD();
  110   $main::EBOLD      = EBOLD();
  111   $main::BITALIC      = BITALIC();
  112   $main::EITALIC          = EITALIC();
  113   $main::BCENTER          = BCENTER();
  114   $main::ECENTER          = ECENTER();
  115   $main::HR       = HR();
  116   $main::LBRACE     = LBRACE();
  117   $main::RBRACE     = RBRACE();
  118   $main::LB       = LB();
  119   $main::RB       = RB();
  120   $main::DOLLAR     = DOLLAR();
  121   $main::PERCENT      = PERCENT();
  122   $main::CARET      = CARET();
  123   $main::PI       = PI();
  124   $main::E        = E();
  125   @main::ALPHABET     = ('A'..'ZZ');
  126   %main::STICKY_ANSWERS   = ();
  127 
  128 
  129 EndOfFile
  130 
  131 # Next we transfer the correct definitions in the main:: compartment to the local my variables
  132 # This can't be done inside the eval above because my variables seem to be invisible inside the eval
  133 
  134 
  135     $PAR         = PAR();
  136   $BR            = BR();
  137   $LQ            = LQ();
  138   $RQ            = RQ();
  139   $BM            = BM();
  140   $EM            = EM();
  141   $BDM         = BDM();
  142   $EDM         = EDM();
  143   $LTS         = LTS();
  144   $GTS         = GTS();
  145   $LTE         = LTE();
  146   $GTE         = GTE();
  147   $BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN  = BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN();
  148   $END_ONE_COLUMN      = END_ONE_COLUMN();
  149   $SOL         = SOLUTION_HEADING();
  150   $SOLUTION      = SOLUTION_HEADING();
  151   $HINT        = HINT_HEADING();
  152   $US            = US();
  153   $SPACE           = SPACE();
  154   $BBOLD           = BBOLD();
  155   $EBOLD           = EBOLD();
  156   $BITALIC       = BITALIC();
  157   $EITALIC             = EITALIC();
  158   $BCENTER             = BCENTER();
  159   $ECENTER             = ECENTER();
  160   $HR            = HR();
  161   $LBRACE          = LBRACE();
  162   $RBRACE          = RBRACE();
  163   $LB            = LB();
  164   $RB            = RB();
  165   $DOLLAR          = DOLLAR();
  166   $PERCENT       = PERCENT();
  167   $CARET           = CARET();
  168   $PI            = PI();
  169   $E             = E();
  170   @ALPHABET      = ('A'..'ZZ');
  171 
  172    $envir               = PG_restricted_eval(q!\%main::envir!);
  173    $PG_random_generator = PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::PG_random_generator!);
  174    $inputs_ref          = $envir{inputs_ref};
  175    $rh_sticky_answers   = PG_restricted_eval(q!\%main::STICKY_ANSWERS!);
  176    $r_ans_rule_count     = PG_restricted_eval(q!\$ans_rule_count!);
  177 }
  178 
  179 =head2  Answer blank macros:
  180 
  181 These produce answer blanks of various sizes or pop up lists or radio answer buttons.
  182 The names for the answer blanks are
  183 generated implicitly.
  184 
  185   ans_rule( width )
  186   tex_ans_rule( width )
  187   ans_radio_buttons(value1=>label1, value2,label2 => value3,label3=>...)
  188   pop_up_list(@list)  # list consists of (value => label,  PR => "Product rule",...)
  189 
  190 To indicate the checked position of radio buttons put a '%' in front of the value: C<ans_radio_buttons(1, 'Yes','%2','No')>
  191 will have 'No' checked.  C<tex_ans_rule> works inside math equations in C<HTML_tth> mode.  It does not work in C<Latex2HTML> mode
  192 since this mode produces gif pictures.
  193 
  194 
  195 The following method is defined in F<PG.pl> for entering the answer evaluators corresponding
  196 to answer rules with automatically generated names.  The answer evaluators are matched with the
  197 answer rules in the order in which they appear on the page.
  198 
  199   ANS(ans_evaluator1, ans_evaluator2,...);
  200 
  201 These are more primitive macros which produce answer blanks for specialized cases when complete
  202 control over the matching of answers blanks and answer evaluators is desired.
  203 The names of the answer blanks must be generated manually, and it is best if they do NOT begin
  204 with the default answer prefix (currently AnSwEr).
  205 
  206   labeled_ans_rule(name, width)  # an alias for NAMED_ANS_RULE where width defaults to 20 if omitted.
  207 
  208   NAMED_ANS_RULE(name, width)
  209   NAMED_ANS_BOX(name, rows, cols)
  210   NAMED_ANS_RADIO(name, value,label,)
  211   NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION(name, value,label)
  212   NAMED_ANS_RADIO_BUTTONS(name,value1,label1,value2,label2,...)
  213   check_box('-name' =>answer5,'-value' =>'statement3','-label' =>'I loved this course!'   )
  214   NAMED_POP_UP_LIST($name, @list) # list consists of (value => tag,  PR => "Product rule",...)
  215 
  216 (Name is the name of the variable, value is the value given to the variable when this option is selected,
  217 and label is the text printed next to the button or check box.    Check box variables can have multiple values.)
  218 
  219 NAMED_ANS_RADIO_BUTTONS creates a sequence of NAMED_ANS_RADIO and NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION  items which
  220 are  output either as an array or, in scalar context, as the array glued together with spaces.  It is
  221 usually easier to use this than to manually construct the radio buttons by hand.  However, sometimes
  222  extra flexibility is desiredin which case:
  223 
  224 When entering radio buttons using the "NAMED" format, you should use NAMED_ANS_RADIO button for the first button
  225 and then use NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION for the remaining buttons.  NAMED_ANS_RADIO requires a matching answer evalutor,
  226 while NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION does not. The name used for NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION should match the name
  227 used for NAMED_ANS_RADIO (and the associated answer evaluator).
  228 
  229 
  230 The following method is defined in  F<PG.pl> for entering the answer evaluators corresponding
  231 to answer rules with automatically generated names.  The answer evaluators are matched with the
  232 answer rules in the order in which they appear on the page.
  233 
  234       NAMED_ANS(name1 => ans_evaluator1, name2 => ans_evaluator2,...);
  235 
  236 These auxiliary macros are defined in PG.pl
  237 
  238 
  239   NEW_ANS_NAME( number );   # produces a new answer blank name from a number by adding a prefix (AnSwEr)
  240                             # and registers this name as an implicitly labeled answer
  241                             # Its use is paired with each answer evaluator being entered using ANS()
  242 
  243     ANS_NUM_TO_NAME(number);  # adds the prefix (AnSwEr) to the number, but does nothing else.
  244 
  245   RECORD_ANS_NAME( name );  # records the order in which the answer blank  is rendered
  246                             # This is called by all of the constructs above, but must
  247                             # be called explicitly if an input blank is constructed explictly
  248                             # using HTML code.
  249 
  250 These are legacy macros:
  251 
  252   ANS_RULE( number, width );                  # equivalent to NAMED_ANS_RULE( NEW_ANS_NAME(number), width)
  253   ANS_BOX( question_number,height, width );       # equivalent to NAMED_ANS_BOX( NEW_ANS_NAME(number), height, width)
  254   ANS_RADIO( question_number, value,tag );        # equivalent to NAMED_ANS_RADIO( NEW_ANS_NAME(number), value,tag)
  255   ANS_RADIO_OPTION( question_number, value,tag );   # equivalent to NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION( ANS_NUM_TO_NAME(number), value,tag)
  256 
  257 
  258 =cut
  259 
  260 
  261 
  262 sub labeled_ans_rule {   # syntactic sugar for NAMED_ANS_RULE
  263   my($name,$col) = @_;
  264   $col = 20 unless defined($col);
  265   NAMED_ANS_RULE($name,$col);
  266 }
  267 
  268 sub NAMED_ANS_RULE {
  269   my($name,$col) = @_;
  270   my $len = 0.07*$col;
  271   my $answer_value = '';
  272   $answer_value = ${$inputs_ref}{$name} if    defined(${$inputs_ref}{$name});
  273     if ($answer_value =~ /\0/ ) {
  274       my @answers = split("\0", $answer_value);
  275       $answer_value = shift(@answers);  # use up the first answer
  276       $rh_sticky_answers->{$name}=\@answers;
  277       # store the rest -- beacuse this stores to a main:; variable
  278       # it must be evaluated at run time
  279       $answer_value= '' unless defined($answer_value);
  280   } elsif (ref($answer_value) eq 'ARRAY') {
  281     my @answers = @{ $answer_value};
  282       $answer_value = shift(@answers);  # use up the first answer
  283       $rh_sticky_answers->{$name}=\@answers;
  284       # store the rest -- beacuse this stores to a main:; variable
  285       # it must be evaluated at run time
  286       $answer_value= '' unless defined($answer_value);
  287   }
  288 
  289   $answer_value =~ tr/\\$@`//d;   ## make sure student answers can not be interpolated by e.g. EV3
  290   $name = RECORD_ANS_NAME($name);
  291 
  292   # incorporated Davide Cervone's changes
  293   # removed newlines from around <INPUT> tags
  294   # made TeX rule be based on specified width rather than varying size.
  295   my $tcol = $col/2 > 3 ? $col/2 : 3;  ## get max
  296   $tcol = $tcol < 40 ? $tcol : 40;     ## get min
  297 
  298   MODES(
  299     TeX => "\\mbox{\\parbox[t]{${tcol}ex}{\\hrulefill}}",
  300     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME=\"$name\" VALUE = \"\">\\end{rawhtml}!,
  301     HTML => qq!<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME="$name" VALUE="$answer_value">!.
  302                         qq!<INPUT TYPE=HIDDEN  NAME="previous_$name" VALUE="$answer_value">!
  303   );
  304 }
  305 
  306 sub NAMED_ANS_RULE_OPTION {   # deprecated
  307   &NAMED_ANS_RULE_EXTENSION;
  308 }
  309 
  310 sub NAMED_ANS_RULE_EXTENSION {
  311   my($name,$col) = @_;
  312   my $len = 0.07*$col;
  313   my $answer_value = '';
  314   $answer_value = ${$inputs_ref}{$name} if defined(${$inputs_ref}{$name});
  315   if ( defined( $rh_sticky_answers->{$name} ) ) {
  316     $answer_value = shift( @{ $rh_sticky_answers->{$name} });
  317     $answer_value = '' unless defined($answer_value);
  318   }
  319   $answer_value =~ tr/\\$@`//d;   ## make sure student answers can not be interpolated by e.g. EV3
  320   MODES(
  321     TeX => '\\hrulefill\\quad ',
  322     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME=\"$name\" VALUE = \"\">\n\\end{rawhtml}\n!,
  323     HTML => qq!<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME = "$name" VALUE = "$answer_value">\n
  324                <INPUT TYPE=HIDDEN  NAME="previous_$name" VALUE = "$answer_value">
  325               !
  326   );
  327 }
  328 
  329 sub ANS_RULE {  #deprecated
  330   my($number,$col) = @_;
  331   my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME($number);
  332     NAMED_ANS_RULE($name,$col);
  333 }
  334 
  335 
  336 sub  NAMED_ANS_BOX {
  337   my($name,$row,$col) = @_;
  338   $row = 10 unless defined($row);
  339   $col = 80 unless defined($col);
  340   $name = RECORD_ANS_NAME($name);
  341   my $len = 0.07*$col;
  342   my $height = .07*$row;
  343   my $answer_value = '';
  344   $answer_value = $inputs_ref->{$name} if defined( $inputs_ref->{$name} );
  345   $answer_value =~ tr/\\$@`//d;   ## make sure student answers can not be interpolated by e.g. EV3
  346   my $out = M3(
  347        qq!\\vskip $height in \\hrulefill\\quad !,
  348        qq!\\begin{rawhtml}<TEXTAREA NAME="$name" ROWS="$row" COLS="$col"
  349                WRAP="VIRTUAL">$answer_value</TEXTAREA>\\end{rawhtml}!,
  350          qq!<TEXTAREA NAME="$name" ROWS="$row" COLS="$col"
  351                WRAP="VIRTUAL">$answer_value</TEXTAREA>
  352              <INPUT TYPE=HIDDEN  NAME="previous_$name" VALUE = "$answer_value">
  353            !
  354          );
  355   $out;
  356 }
  357 
  358 sub  ANS_BOX { #deprecated
  359   my($number,$row,$col) = @_;
  360   my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME($number);
  361     NAMED_ANS_BOX($name,$row,$col);
  362 }
  363 
  364 sub NAMED_ANS_RADIO {
  365   my $name = shift;
  366   my $value = shift;
  367     my $tag =shift;
  368     $name = RECORD_ANS_NAME($name);
  369     my $checked = '';
  370     if ($value =~/^\%/) {
  371       $value =~ s/^\%//;
  372       $checked = 'CHECKED'
  373     }
  374   if (defined($inputs_ref->{$name}) ) {
  375     if ($inputs_ref->{$name} eq $value) {
  376       $checked = 'CHECKED'
  377     } else {
  378       $checked = '';
  379     }
  380 
  381     }
  382 
  383   MODES(
  384     TeX => qq!\\item{$tag}\n!,
  385     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=RADIO NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>\\end{rawhtml}$tag!,
  386     HTML => qq!<INPUT TYPE=RADIO NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>$tag!
  387   );
  388 
  389 }
  390 
  391 sub NAMED_ANS_RADIO_OPTION { #deprecated
  392   &NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION;
  393 }
  394 
  395 sub NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION {
  396   my $name = shift;
  397   my $value = shift;
  398   my $tag =shift;
  399 
  400 
  401     my $checked = '';
  402     if ($value =~/^\%/) {
  403       $value =~ s/^\%//;
  404       $checked = 'CHECKED'
  405     }
  406   if (defined($inputs_ref->{$name}) ) {
  407     if ($inputs_ref->{$name} eq $value) {
  408       $checked = 'CHECKED'
  409     } else {
  410       $checked = '';
  411     }
  412 
  413     }
  414 
  415   MODES(
  416     TeX => qq!\\item{$tag}\n!,
  417     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=RADIO NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>\\end{rawhtml}$tag!,
  418     HTML => qq!<INPUT TYPE=RADIO NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>$tag!
  419   );
  420 
  421 }
  422 
  423 sub NAMED_ANS_RADIO_BUTTONS {
  424     my $name  =shift;
  425     my $value = shift;
  426     my $tag = shift;
  427 
  428 
  429   my @out = ();
  430   push(@out, NAMED_ANS_RADIO($name, $value,$tag));
  431   my @buttons = @_;
  432   while (@buttons) {
  433     $value = shift @buttons;  $tag = shift @buttons;
  434     push(@out, NAMED_ANS_RADIO_OPTION($name, $value,$tag));
  435   }
  436   (wantarray) ? @out : join(" ",@out);
  437 }
  438 sub ANS_RADIO {
  439   my $number = shift;
  440   my $value = shift;
  441   my $tag =shift;
  442     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME($number);
  443   NAMED_ANS_RADIO($name,$value,$tag);
  444 }
  445 
  446 sub ANS_RADIO_OPTION {
  447   my $number = shift;
  448   my $value = shift;
  449   my $tag =shift;
  450 
  451 
  452     my $name = ANS_NUM_TO_NAME($number);
  453   NAMED_ANS_RADIO_OPTION($name,$value,$tag);
  454 }
  455 sub ANS_RADIO_BUTTONS {
  456     my $number  =shift;
  457     my $value = shift;
  458     my $tag = shift;
  459 
  460 
  461   my @out = ();
  462   push(@out, ANS_RADIO($number, $value,$tag));
  463   my @buttons = @_;
  464   while (@buttons) {
  465       $value = shift @buttons; $tag = shift @buttons;
  466     push(@out, ANS_RADIO_OPTION($number, $value,$tag));
  467   }
  468   (wantarray) ? @out : join(" ",@out);
  469 }
  470 ##############################################
  471 #   contained_in( $elem, $array_reference or null separated string);
  472 #   determine whether element is equal
  473 #   ( in the sense of eq,  not ==, ) to an element in the array.
  474 ##############################################
  475 sub contained_in {
  476   my $element = shift;
  477   my @input_list    = @_;
  478   my @output_list = ();
  479   # Expand the list -- convert references to  arrays to arrays
  480   # Convert null separated strings to arrays
  481   foreach my $item   (@input_list ) {
  482     if ($item =~ /\0/) {
  483       push @output_list,   split('\0', $item);
  484      } elsif (ref($item) =~/ARRAY/) {
  485       push @output_list, @{$item};
  486      } else {
  487       push @output_list, $item;
  488      }
  489   }
  490 
  491   my @match_list = grep {$element eq $_ } @output_list;
  492   if ( @match_list ) {
  493     return 1;
  494   } else {
  495     return 0;
  496   }
  497 }
  498 
  499 ##########################
  500 # If multiple boxes are checked then the $inputs_ref->{name }will be a null separated string
  501 # or a reference to an array.
  502 ##########################
  503 
  504 sub NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX {
  505   my $name = shift;
  506   my $value = shift;
  507     my $tag =shift;
  508     $name = RECORD_ANS_NAME($name);
  509 
  510     my $checked = '';
  511     if ($value =~/^\%/) {
  512       $value =~ s/^\%//;
  513       $checked = 'CHECKED'
  514     }
  515 
  516   if (defined($inputs_ref->{$name}) ) {
  517     if ( contained_in($value, $inputs_ref->{$name} ) ) {
  518       $checked = 'CHECKED'
  519     }
  520     else {
  521       $checked = '';
  522     }
  523 
  524     }
  525 
  526   MODES(
  527     TeX => qq!\\item{$tag}\n!,
  528     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=CHECKBOX NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>\\end{rawhtml}$tag!,
  529     HTML => qq!<INPUT TYPE=CHECKBOX NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>$tag!
  530   );
  531 
  532 }
  533 
  534 sub NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX_OPTION {
  535   my $name = shift;
  536   my $value = shift;
  537   my $tag =shift;
  538 
  539     my $checked = '';
  540     if ($value =~/^\%/) {
  541       $value =~ s/^\%//;
  542       $checked = 'CHECKED'
  543     }
  544 
  545   if (defined($inputs_ref->{$name}) ) {
  546     if ( contained_in($value, $inputs_ref->{$name}) ) {
  547       $checked = 'CHECKED'
  548     }
  549     else {
  550       $checked = '';
  551     }
  552 
  553     }
  554 
  555   MODES(
  556     TeX => qq!\\item{$tag}\n!,
  557     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=CHECKBOX NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>\\end{rawhtml}$tag!,
  558     HTML => qq!<INPUT TYPE=CHECKBOX NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>$tag!
  559   );
  560 
  561 }
  562 
  563 sub NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX_BUTTONS {
  564     my $name  =shift;
  565     my $value = shift;
  566     my $tag = shift;
  567 
  568   my @out = ();
  569   push(@out, NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX($name, $value,$tag));
  570 
  571   my @buttons = @_;
  572   while (@buttons) {
  573     $value = shift @buttons;  $tag = shift @buttons;
  574     push(@out, NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX_OPTION($name, $value,$tag));
  575   }
  576 
  577   (wantarray) ? @out : join(" ",@out);
  578 }
  579 
  580 sub ANS_CHECKBOX {
  581   my $number = shift;
  582   my $value = shift;
  583   my $tag =shift;
  584     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME($number);
  585 
  586   NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX($name,$value,$tag);
  587 }
  588 
  589 sub ANS_CHECKBOX_OPTION {
  590   my $number = shift;
  591   my $value = shift;
  592   my $tag =shift;
  593     my $name = ANS_NUM_TO_NAME($number);
  594 
  595   NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX_OPTION($name,$value,$tag);
  596 }
  597 
  598 
  599 
  600 sub ANS_CHECKBOX_BUTTONS {
  601     my $number  =shift;
  602     my $value = shift;
  603     my $tag = shift;
  604 
  605   my @out = ();
  606   push(@out, ANS_CHECKBOX($number, $value, $tag));
  607 
  608   my @buttons = @_;
  609   while (@buttons) {
  610     $value = shift @buttons;  $tag = shift @buttons;
  611     push(@out, ANS_CHECKBOX_OPTION($number, $value,$tag));
  612   }
  613 
  614   (wantarray) ? @out : join(" ",@out);
  615 }
  616 
  617 sub ans_rule {
  618   my $len = shift;     # gives the optional length of the answer blank
  619   $len    = 20 unless $len ;
  620   my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME(inc_ans_rule_count());
  621   NAMED_ANS_RULE($name ,$len);
  622 }
  623 sub ans_rule_extension {
  624   my $len = shift;
  625     $len    = 20 unless $len ;
  626   my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME($$r_ans_rule_count);  # don't update the answer name
  627   NAMED_ANS_RULE($name ,$len);
  628 }
  629 sub ans_radio_buttons {
  630   my $name  = NEW_ANS_NAME(inc_ans_rule_count());
  631   my @radio_buttons = NAMED_ANS_RADIO_BUTTONS($name, @_);
  632 
  633   if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
  634     $radio_buttons[0] = "\n\\begin{itemize}\n" . $radio_buttons[0];
  635     $radio_buttons[$#radio_buttons] .= "\n\\end{itemize}\n";
  636   }
  637 
  638   (wantarray) ? @radio_buttons: join(" ", @radio_buttons);
  639 }
  640 
  641 #added 6/14/2000 by David Etlinger
  642 sub ans_checkbox {
  643   my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME( inc_ans_rule_count() );
  644   my @checkboxes = NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX_BUTTONS( $name, @_ );
  645 
  646   if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
  647     $checkboxes[0] = "\n\\begin{itemize}\n" . $checkboxes[0];
  648     $checkboxes[$#checkboxes] .= "\n\\end{itemize}\n";
  649   }
  650 
  651   (wantarray) ? @checkboxes: join(" ", @checkboxes);
  652 }
  653 
  654 
  655 ## define a version of ans_rule which will work inside TeX math mode or display math mode -- at least for tth mode.
  656 ## This is great for displayed fractions.
  657 ## This will not work with latex2HTML mode since it creates gif equations.
  658 
  659 sub tex_ans_rule {
  660   my $len = shift;
  661   $len    = 20 unless $len ;
  662     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME(inc_ans_rule_count());
  663     my $answer_rule = NAMED_ANS_RULE($name ,$len);  # we don't want to create three answer rules in different modes.
  664     my $out = MODES(
  665                      'TeX' => $answer_rule,
  666                      'Latex2HTML' => '\\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
  667                      'HTML_tth' => '\\begin{rawhtml} '. $answer_rule.'\\end{rawhtml}',
  668                      'HTML_dpng' => '\\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
  669                      'HTML'     => $answer_rule
  670                    );
  671 
  672     $out;
  673 }
  674 sub tex_ans_rule_extension {
  675   my $len = shift;
  676   $len    = 20 unless $len ;
  677     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME($$r_ans_rule_count);
  678     my $answer_rule = NAMED_ANS_RULE($name ,$len);  # we don't want to create three answer rules in different modes.
  679     my $out = MODES(
  680                      'TeX' => $answer_rule,
  681                      'Latex2HTML' => '\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
  682                      'HTML_tth' => '\\begin{rawhtml} '. $answer_rule.'\\end{rawhtml}',
  683                      'HTML_dpng' => '\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
  684                      'HTML'     => $answer_rule
  685                    );
  686 
  687     $out;
  688 }
  689 # still needs some cleanup.
  690 sub NAMED_TEX_ANS_RULE {
  691     my $name = shift;
  692   my $len = shift;
  693   $len    = 20 unless $len ;
  694     my $answer_rule = NAMED_ANS_RULE($name ,$len);  # we don't want to create three answer rules in different modes.
  695     my $out = MODES(
  696                      'TeX' => $answer_rule,
  697                      'Latex2HTML' => '\\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
  698                      'HTML_tth' => '\\begin{rawhtml} '. $answer_rule.'\\end{rawhtml}',
  699                      'HTML_dpng' => '\\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
  700                      'HTML'     => $answer_rule
  701                    );
  702 
  703     $out;
  704 }
  705 sub NAMED_TEX_ANS_RULE_EXTENSION {
  706   my $name = shift;
  707   my $len = shift;
  708   $len    = 20 unless $len ;
  709     my $answer_rule = NAMED_ANS_RULE_EXTENSION($name ,$len);  # we don't want to create three answer rules in different modes.
  710     my $out = MODES(
  711                      'TeX' => $answer_rule,
  712                      'Latex2HTML' => '\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
  713                      'HTML_tth' => '\\begin{rawhtml} '. $answer_rule.'\\end{rawhtml}',
  714                      'HTML_dpng' => '\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
  715                      'HTML'     => $answer_rule
  716                    );
  717 
  718     $out;
  719 }
  720 sub ans_box {
  721   my $row = shift;
  722   my $col =shift;
  723   $row = 5 unless $row;
  724   $col = 80 unless $col;
  725   my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME(inc_ans_rule_count());
  726   NAMED_ANS_BOX($name ,$row,$col);
  727 }
  728 
  729 #this is legacy code; use ans_checkbox instead
  730 sub checkbox {
  731   my %options = @_;
  732   qq!<INPUT TYPE="checkbox" NAME="$options{'-name'}" VALUE="$options{'-value'}">$options{'-label'}!
  733 }
  734 
  735 
  736 sub NAMED_POP_UP_LIST {
  737     my $name = shift;
  738   my @list = @_;
  739   $name = RECORD_ANS_NAME($name);   # record answer name
  740     my $answer_value = '';
  741   $answer_value = ${$inputs_ref}{$name} if defined(${$inputs_ref}{$name});
  742   my $out = "";
  743   if ($displayMode eq 'HTML' or $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' or
  744             $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng' or $displayMode eq 'HTML_img' or $displayMode eq 'HTML_jsMath' or $displayMode eq 'HTML_asciimath') {
  745     $out = qq!<SELECT NAME = "$name" SIZE=1> \n!;
  746     my $i;
  747     foreach ($i=0; $i< @list; $i=$i+2) {
  748       my $select_flag = ($list[$i] eq $answer_value) ? "SELECTED" : "";
  749       $out .= qq!<OPTION $select_flag VALUE ="$list[$i]" > $list[$i+1]  </OPTION>\n!;
  750     };
  751     $out .= " </SELECT>\n";
  752   } elsif ( $displayMode eq "Latex2HTML") {
  753     $out = qq! \\begin{rawhtml}<SELECT NAME = "$name" SIZE=1> \\end{rawhtml} \n !;
  754     my $i;
  755     foreach ($i=0; $i< @list; $i=$i+2) {
  756       my $select_flag = ($list[$i] eq $answer_value) ? "SELECTED" : "";
  757       $out .= qq!\\begin{rawhtml}<OPTION $select_flag VALUE ="$list[$i]" > $list[$i+1]  </OPTION>\\end{rawhtml}\n!;
  758     };
  759     $out .= " \\begin{rawhtml}</SELECT>\\end{rawhtml}\n";
  760   } elsif ( $displayMode eq "TeX") {
  761       $out .= "\\fbox{?}";
  762   }
  763 
  764 }
  765 
  766 sub pop_up_list {
  767   my @list = @_;
  768   my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME(inc_ans_rule_count());  # get new answer name
  769   NAMED_POP_UP_LIST($name, @list);
  770 }
  771 
  772 
  773 
  774 =head5  answer_matrix
  775 
  776     Usage   \[ \{   answer_matrix(rows,columns,width_of_ans_rule, @options) \} \]
  777 
  778     Creates an array of answer blanks and passes it to display_matrix which returns
  779     text which represents the matrix in TeX format used in math display mode. Answers
  780     are then passed back to whatever answer evaluators you write at the end of the problem.
  781     (note, if you have an m x n matrix, you will need mn answer evaluators, and they will be
  782     returned to the evaluaters starting in the top left hand corner and proceed to the left
  783     and then at the end moving down one row, just as you would read them.)
  784 
  785     The options are passed on to display_matrix.
  786 
  787 
  788 =cut
  789 
  790 
  791 sub answer_matrix{
  792   my $m = shift;
  793   my $n = shift;
  794   my $width = shift;
  795   my @options = @_;
  796   my @array=();
  797   for( my $i = 0; $i < $m; $i+=1)
  798   {
  799     my @row_array = ();
  800 
  801     for( my $i = 0; $i < $n; $i+=1)
  802     {
  803       push @row_array,  ans_rule($width);
  804     }
  805     my $r_row_array = \@row_array;
  806     push @array,  $r_row_array;
  807   }
  808   # display_matrix hasn't been loaded into the cache safe compartment
  809   # so we need to refer to the subroutine in this way to make
  810   # sure that main is defined correctly.
  811   my $ra_local_display_matrix=PG_restricted_eval(q!\&main::display_matrix!);
  812   &$ra_local_display_matrix( \@array, @options );
  813 
  814 }
  815 
  816 sub NAMED_ANS_ARRAY_EXTENSION{
  817 
  818   my $name = shift;
  819   my $col = shift;
  820   $col = 20 unless $col;
  821   my $answer_value = '';
  822 
  823   $answer_value = ${$inputs_ref}{$name} if    defined(${$inputs_ref}{$name});
  824   if ($answer_value =~ /\0/ ) {
  825     my @answers = split("\0", $answer_value);
  826     $answer_value = shift(@answers);
  827     $answer_value= '' unless defined($answer_value);
  828   } elsif (ref($answer_value) eq 'ARRAY') {
  829     my @answers = @{ $answer_value};
  830       $answer_value = shift(@answers);
  831         $answer_value= '' unless defined($answer_value);
  832   }
  833 
  834   $answer_value =~ tr/\\$@`//d;   ## make sure student answers can not be interpolated by e.g. EV3
  835   MODES(
  836     TeX => "\\mbox{\\parbox[t]{10pt}{\\hrulefill}}\\hrulefill\\quad ",
  837     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME=\"$name\" VALUE = \"\">\n\\end{rawhtml}\n!,
  838     HTML => "<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME=\"$name\" VALUE = \"$answer_value\">\n"
  839   );
  840 }
  841 
  842 sub ans_array{
  843   my $m = shift;
  844   my $n = shift;
  845   my $col = shift;
  846   $col = 20 unless $col;
  847   my $num = inc_ans_rule_count() ;
  848   my $name = NEW_ANS_ARRAY_NAME($num,0,0);
  849   my @options = @_;
  850   my @array=();
  851   my $string;
  852   my $answer_value = "";
  853 
  854   $array[0][0] =   NAMED_ANS_RULE($name,$col);
  855 
  856   for( my $i = 1; $i < $n; $i+=1)
  857   {
  858     $name = NEW_ANS_ARRAY_NAME_EXTENSION($num,0,$i);
  859     $array[0][$i] =   NAMED_ANS_ARRAY_EXTENSION($name,$col);
  860 
  861   }
  862 
  863   for( my $j = 1; $j < $m; $j+=1 ){
  864 
  865     for( my $i = 0; $i < $n; $i+=1)
  866     {
  867       $name = NEW_ANS_ARRAY_NAME_EXTENSION($num,$j,$i);
  868       $array[$j][$i] =  NAMED_ANS_ARRAY_EXTENSION($name,$col);
  869 
  870     }
  871 
  872   }
  873   my $ra_local_display_matrix=PG_restricted_eval(q!\&main::display_matrix!);
  874   &$ra_local_display_matrix( \@array, @options );
  875 
  876 }
  877 
  878 sub ans_array_extension{
  879   my $m = shift;
  880   my $n = shift;
  881   my $col = shift;
  882   $col = 20 unless $col;
  883   my $num = PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::ans_rule_count!);
  884   my @options = @_;
  885   my $name;
  886   my @array=();
  887   my $string;
  888   my $answer_value = "";
  889 
  890   for( my $j = 0; $j < $m; $j+=1 ){
  891 
  892     for( my $i = 0; $i < $n; $i+=1)
  893     {
  894       $name = NEW_ANS_ARRAY_NAME_EXTENSION($num,$j,$i);
  895       $array[$j][$i] =  NAMED_ANS_ARRAY_EXTENSION($name,$col);
  896 
  897     }
  898 
  899   }
  900   my $ra_local_display_matrix=PG_restricted_eval(q!\&main::display_matrix!);
  901   &$ra_local_display_matrix( \@array, @options );
  902 
  903 }
  904 
  905 
  906 # end answer blank macros
  907 
  908 =head2 Hints and solutions macros
  909 
  910   solution('text','text2',...);
  911   SOLUTION('text','text2',...);   # equivalent to TEXT(solution(...));
  912 
  913   hint('text', 'text2', ...);
  914   HINT('text', 'text2',...);      # equivalent to TEXT("$BR$HINT" . hint(@_) . "$BR") if hint(@_);
  915 
  916 Solution prints its concatenated input when the check box named 'ShowSol' is set and
  917 the time is after the answer date.  The check box 'ShowSol' is visible only after the
  918 answer date or when the problem is viewed by a professor.
  919 
  920 $main::envir{'displaySolutionsQ'} is set to 1 when a solution is to be displayed.
  921 
  922 Hints are shown only after the number of attempts is greater than $:showHint
  923 ($main::showHint defaults to 1) and the check box named 'ShowHint' is set. The check box
  924 'ShowHint' is visible only after the number of attempts is greater than $main::showHint.
  925 
  926 $main::envir{'displayHintsQ'} is set to 1 when a hint is to be displayed.
  927 
  928 
  929 =cut
  930 
  931 
  932 
  933 #   solution prints its input when $displaySolutionsQ is set.
  934 #   use as TEXT(solution("blah, blah");
  935 #   \$solutionExists
  936 #   is passed to processProblem which displays a "show Solution" button
  937 #   when a solution is available for viewing
  938 
  939 
  940 sub solution {
  941   my @in = @_;
  942   my $out = '';
  943   PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::solutionExists =1!);
  944   if (PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::envir{'displaySolutionsQ'}!)) {$out = join(' ',@in);}
  945     $out;
  946 }
  947 
  948 
  949 sub SOLUTION {
  950   TEXT( solution(@_)) ;
  951 }
  952 
  953 
  954 
  955 sub hint {
  956     my @in = @_;
  957   my $out = '';
  958 
  959   PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::hintExists =1;
  960                          $main::numOfAttempts = 0 unless defined($main::numOfAttempts);
  961     !);
  962 
  963   if ($displayMode eq 'TeX')   {
  964     $out = '';  # do nothing since hints are not available for download
  965   } elsif (($envir->{'displayHintsQ'}) and
  966           PG_restricted_eval(q!($main::numOfAttempts >= $main::showHint)!))
  967 
  968    ## the second test above prevents a hint being shown if a doctored form is submitted
  969 
  970   {$out = join(' ',@in);}    # show hint
  971 
  972   $out ;
  973 }
  974 
  975 
  976 sub HINT {
  977     TEXT("$BR" . hint(@_) . "$BR") if hint(@_);
  978 }
  979 
  980 
  981 
  982 # End hints and solutions macros
  983 #################################
  984 
  985 # Produces a random number between $begin and $end with increment 1.
  986 # You do not have to worry about integer or floating point types.
  987 
  988 =head2 Pseudo-random number generator
  989 
  990   Usage:
  991   random(0,5,.1)      # produces a random number between 0 and 5 in increments of .1
  992   non_zero_random(0,5,.1) # gives a non-zero random number
  993 
  994   list_random(2,3,5,6,7,8,10) # produces random value from the list
  995   list_random(2,3, (5..8),10) # does the same thing
  996 
  997   SRAND(seed)     # resets the main random generator -- use very cautiously
  998 
  999 
 1000 SRAND(time) will create a different problem everytime it is called.  This makes it difficult
 1001 to check the answers :-).
 1002 
 1003 SRAND($envir->{'inputs_ref'}->{'key'} ) will create a different problem for each login session.
 1004 This is probably what is desired.
 1005 
 1006 =cut
 1007 
 1008 
 1009 sub random  {
 1010   my ($begin, $end, $incr) = @_;
 1011   $PG_random_generator->random($begin,$end,$incr);
 1012 }
 1013 
 1014 
 1015 sub non_zero_random { ##gives a non-zero random number
 1016   my (@arguments)=@_;
 1017   my $a=0;
 1018   my $i=100; #safety counter
 1019   while ($a==0 && ( 0 < $i-- ) ) {
 1020     $a=random(@arguments);
 1021   }
 1022   $a;
 1023 }
 1024 
 1025 sub list_random {
 1026         my(@li) = @_;
 1027         return $li[random(1,scalar(@li))-1];
 1028 }
 1029 
 1030 sub SRAND { # resets the main random generator -- use cautiously
 1031     my $seed = shift;
 1032   $PG_random_generator -> srand($seed);
 1033 }
 1034 
 1035 # display macros
 1036 
 1037 =head2 Display Macros
 1038 
 1039 These macros produce different output depending on the display mode being used to show
 1040 the problem on the screen, or whether the problem is being converted to TeX to produce
 1041 a hard copy output.
 1042 
 1043   MODES   ( TeX =>        "Output this in TeX mode",
 1044             HTML =>       "output this in HTML mode",
 1045             HTML_tth =>   "output this in HTML_tth mode",
 1046             HTML_dpng =>   "output this in HTML_dpng mode",
 1047             Latex2HTML => "output this in Latex2HTML mode",
 1048            )
 1049 
 1050   TEX     (tex_version, html_version) #obsolete
 1051 
 1052   M3      (tex_version, latex2html_version, html_version) #obsolete
 1053 
 1054 
 1055 
 1056 =cut
 1057 
 1058 
 1059 sub TEX {
 1060   my ($tex, $html ) = @_;
 1061   MODES(TeX => $tex, HTML => $html, HTML_tth => $html, HTML_dpng => $html);
 1062 }
 1063 
 1064 
 1065 sub M3 {
 1066   my($tex,$l2h,$html) = @_;
 1067   MODES(TeX => $tex, Latex2HTML => $l2h, HTML => $html, HTML_tth => $html, HTML_dpng => $html);
 1068 }
 1069 
 1070 # MODES() is now table driven
 1071 our %DISPLAY_MODE_FAILOVER = (
 1072   TeX            => [],
 1073   HTML           => [],
 1074   HTML_tth       => [ "HTML", ],
 1075   HTML_dpng      => [ "HTML_tth", "HTML", ],
 1076   HTML_jsMath    => [ "HTML_dpng", "HTML_tth", "HTML", ],
 1077   HTML_asciimath => [ "HTML_dpng", "HTML_tth", "HTML", ],
 1078   # legacy modes -- these are not supported, but some problems might try to
 1079   # set the display mode to one of these values manually and some macros may
 1080   # provide rendered versions for these modes but not the one we want.
 1081   Latex2HTML  => [ "TeX", "HTML", ],
 1082   HTML_img    => [ "HTML_dpng", "HTML_tth", "HTML", ],
 1083 );
 1084 
 1085 # This replaces M3.  You can add new modes at will to this one.
 1086 sub MODES {
 1087   my %options = @_;
 1088 
 1089   # is a string supplied for the current display mode? if so, return it
 1090   return $options{$displayMode} if defined $options{$displayMode};
 1091 
 1092   # otherwise, fail over to backup modes
 1093   my @backup_modes;
 1094   if (exists $DISPLAY_MODE_FAILOVER{$displayMode}) {
 1095     @backup_modes = @{$DISPLAY_MODE_FAILOVER{$displayMode}};
 1096     foreach my $mode (@backup_modes) {
 1097       return $options{$mode} if defined $options{$mode};
 1098     }
 1099   }
 1100   die "ERROR in defining MODES: neither display mode $displayMode nor",
 1101     " any fallback modes (", join(", ", @backup_modes), ") supplied.\n";
 1102 }
 1103 
 1104 # end display macros
 1105 
 1106 
 1107 =head2  Display constants
 1108 
 1109   @ALPHABET       ALPHABET()      capital letter alphabet -- ALPHABET[0] = 'A'
 1110   $PAR        PAR()       paragraph character (\par or <p>)
 1111   $BR             BR()        line break character
 1112   $LQ         LQ()        left double quote
 1113   $RQ         RQ()        right double quote
 1114   $BM         BM()        begin math
 1115   $EM         EM()        end math
 1116   $BDM        BDM()       begin display math
 1117   $EDM        EDM()       end display math
 1118   $LTS        LTS()       strictly less than
 1119   $GTS        GTS()       strictly greater than
 1120   $LTE        LTE()       less than or equal
 1121   $GTE        GTE()       greater than or equal
 1122   $BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN()  begin one-column mode
 1123   $END_ONE_COLUMN   END_ONE_COLUMN()  end one-column mode
 1124   $SOL        SOLUTION_HEADING()  solution headline
 1125   $SOLUTION     SOLUTION_HEADING()  solution headline
 1126   $HINT       HINT_HEADING()    hint headline
 1127   $US         US()        underscore character
 1128   $SPACE        SPACE()       space character (tex and latex only)
 1129   $BBOLD        BBOLD()       begin bold typeface
 1130   $EBOLD        EBOLD()       end bold typeface
 1131   $BITALIC        BITALIC()       begin italic typeface
 1132   $EITALIC        EITALIC()       end italic typeface
 1133   $BCENTER        BCENTER()       begin centered environment
 1134   $ECENTER        ECENTER()       end centered environment
 1135   $HR         HR()        horizontal rule
 1136   $LBRACE       LBRACE()      left brace
 1137   $LB         LB ()       left brace
 1138   $RBRACE       RBRACE()      right brace
 1139   $RB         RB ()       right brace
 1140   $DOLLAR       DOLLAR()      a dollar sign
 1141   $PERCENT      PERCENT()     a percent sign
 1142   $CARET        CARET()       a caret sign
 1143   $PI         PI()        the number pi
 1144   $E          E()         the number e
 1145 
 1146 =cut
 1147 
 1148 
 1149 
 1150 
 1151 
 1152 # A utility variable.  Notice that "B"=$ALPHABET[1] and
 1153 # "ABCD"=@ALPHABET[0..3].
 1154 
 1155 sub ALPHABET  {
 1156   ('A'..'ZZ')[@_];
 1157 }
 1158 
 1159 ###############################################################
 1160 # Some constants which are different in tex and in HTML
 1161 # The order of arguments is TeX, Latex2HTML, HTML
 1162 # Adopted Davide Cervone's improvements to PAR, LTS, GTS, LTE, GTE, LBRACE, RBRACE, LB, RB. 7-14-03 AKP
 1163 sub PAR { MODES( TeX => '\\par ', Latex2HTML => '\\begin{rawhtml}<P>\\end{rawhtml}', HTML => '<P>'); };
 1164 sub BR { MODES( TeX => '\\par\\noindent ', Latex2HTML => '\\begin{rawhtml}<BR>\\end{rawhtml}', HTML => '<BR>'); };
 1165 # Alternate definition of BR which is slightly more flexible and gives more white space in printed output
 1166 # which looks better but kills more trees.
 1167 #sub BR { MODES( TeX => '\\\\', Latex2HTML => '\\begin{rawhtml}<BR>\\end{rawhtml}', HTML => '<BR>'); };
 1168 sub LQ { MODES( TeX => "``", Latex2HTML =>   '"',  HTML =>  '&quot;' ); };
 1169 sub RQ { MODES( TeX => "''", Latex2HTML =>   '"',   HTML =>  '&quot;' ); };
 1170 sub BM { MODES(TeX => '\\(', Latex2HTML => '\\(', HTML =>  ''); };  # begin math mode
 1171 sub EM { MODES(TeX => '\\)', Latex2HTML => '\\)', HTML => ''); };  # end math mode
 1172 sub BDM { MODES(TeX => '\\[', Latex2HTML =>   '\\[', HTML =>   '<P ALIGN=CENTER>'); };  #begin displayMath mode
 1173 sub EDM { MODES(TeX => '\\]',  Latex2HTML =>  '\\]', HTML => '</P>'); };              #end displayMath mode
 1174 sub LTS { MODES(TeX => '<', Latex2HTML => '\\lt ', HTML => '&lt;', HTML_tth => '<' ); };
 1175 sub GTS { MODES(TeX => '>', Latex2HTML => '\\gt ', HTML => '&gt;', HTML_tth => '>' ); };
 1176 sub LTE { MODES(TeX => '\\le ', Latex2HTML => '\\le ', HTML => '<U>&lt;</U>', HTML_tth => '\\le ' ); };
 1177 sub GTE { MODES(TeX => '\\ge ', Latex2HTML => '\\ge ', HTML => '<U>&gt;</U>', HTML_tth => '\\ge ' ); };
 1178 sub BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN { MODES(TeX => " \\end{multicols}\n",  Latex2HTML => " ", HTML =>   " "); };
 1179 sub END_ONE_COLUMN { MODES(TeX =>
 1180               " \\begin{multicols}{2}\n\\columnwidth=\\linewidth\n",
 1181                             Latex2HTML => ' ', HTML => ' ');
 1182 
 1183 };
 1184 sub SOLUTION_HEADING { MODES( TeX => '\\par {\\bf Solution:}',
 1185                  Latex2HTML => '\\par {\\bf Solution:}',
 1186                HTML =>  '<P><B>Solution:</B>');
 1187               };
 1188 sub HINT_HEADING { MODES( TeX => "\\par {\\bf Hint:}", Latex2HTML => "\\par {\\bf Hint:}", HTML => "<P><B>Hint:</B>"); };
 1189 sub US { MODES(TeX => '\\_', Latex2HTML => '\\_', HTML => '_');};  # underscore, e.g. file${US}name
 1190 sub SPACE { MODES(TeX => '\\ ',  Latex2HTML => '\\ ', HTML => '&nbsp;');};  # force a space in latex, doesn't force extra space in html
 1191 sub BBOLD { MODES(TeX => '{\\bf ',  Latex2HTML => '{\\bf ', HTML => '<B>'); };
 1192 sub EBOLD { MODES( TeX => '}', Latex2HTML =>  '}',HTML =>  '</B>'); };
 1193 sub BITALIC { MODES(TeX => '{\\it ',  Latex2HTML => '{\\it ', HTML => '<I>'); };
 1194 sub EITALIC { MODES(TeX => '} ',  Latex2HTML => '} ', HTML => '</I>'); };
 1195 sub BCENTER { MODES(TeX => '\\begin{center} ',  Latex2HTML => ' \\begin{rawhtml} <div align="center"> \\end{rawhtml} ', HTML => '<div align="center">'); };
 1196 sub ECENTER { MODES(TeX => '\\end{center} ',  Latex2HTML => ' \\begin{rawhtml} </div> \\end{rawhtml} ', HTML => '</div>'); };
 1197 sub HR { MODES(TeX => '\\par\\hrulefill\\par ', Latex2HTML => '\\begin{rawhtml} <HR> \\end{rawhtml}', HTML =>  '<HR>'); };
 1198 sub LBRACE { MODES( TeX => '\{', Latex2HTML =>   '\\lbrace',  HTML =>  '{' , HTML_tth=> '\\lbrace' ); };
 1199 sub RBRACE { MODES( TeX => '\}', Latex2HTML =>   '\\rbrace',  HTML =>  '}' , HTML_tth=> '\\rbrace',); };
 1200 sub LB { MODES( TeX => '\{', Latex2HTML =>   '\\lbrace',  HTML =>  '{' , HTML_tth=> '\\lbrace' ); };
 1201 sub RB { MODES( TeX => '\}', Latex2HTML =>   '\\rbrace',  HTML =>  '}' , HTML_tth=> '\\rbrace',); };
 1202 sub DOLLAR { MODES( TeX => '\\$', Latex2HTML => '\\$', HTML => '$' ); };
 1203 sub PERCENT { MODES( TeX => '\\%', Latex2HTML => '\\%', HTML => '%' ); };
 1204 sub CARET { MODES( TeX => '\\verb+^+', Latex2HTML => '\\verb+^+', HTML => '^' ); };
 1205 sub PI {4*atan2(1,1);};
 1206 sub E {exp(1);};
 1207 
 1208 ###############################################################
 1209 ## Evaluation macros
 1210 
 1211 
 1212 =head2 TEXT macros
 1213 
 1214   Usage:
 1215     TEXT(@text);
 1216 
 1217 This is the simplest way to print text from a problem.  The strings in the array C<@text> are concatenated
 1218 with spaces between them and printed out in the text of the problem.  The text is not processed in any other way.
 1219 C<TEXT> is defined in PG.pl.
 1220 
 1221   Usage:
 1222     BEGIN_TEXT
 1223       text.....
 1224     END_TEXT
 1225 
 1226 This is the most common way to enter text into the problem.  All of the text between BEGIN_TEXT and END_TEXT
 1227 is processed by the C<EV3> macro described below and then printed using the C<TEXT> command.  The two key words
 1228 must appear on lines by themselves.  The preprocessing that makes this construction work is done in F<PGtranslator.pm>.
 1229 See C<EV3> below for details on the processing.
 1230 
 1231 
 1232 =cut
 1233 
 1234 =head2 Evaluation macros
 1235 
 1236 =head3 EV3
 1237 
 1238         TEXT(EV3("This is a formulat \( \int_0^5 x^2 \, dx \) ");
 1239         TEXT(EV3(@text));
 1240 
 1241     TEXT(EV3(<<'END_TEXT'));
 1242       text stuff...
 1243     END_TEXT
 1244 
 1245 
 1246 The BEGIN_TEXT/END_TEXT construction is translated into the construction above by PGtranslator.pm.  END_TEXT must appear
 1247 on a line by itself and be left justified.  (The << construction is known as a "here document" in UNIX and in PERL.)
 1248 
 1249 The single quotes around END_TEXT mean that no automatic interpolation of variables takes place in the text.
 1250 Using EV3 with strings which have been evaluated by double quotes may lead to unexpected results.
 1251 
 1252 
 1253 The evaluation macro E3 first evaluates perl code inside the braces:  C<\{  code \}>.
 1254 Any perl statment can be put inside the braces.  The
 1255 result of the evaluation (i.e. the last statement evaluated) replaces the C<\{ code \}> construction.
 1256 
 1257 Next interpolation of all variables (e.g. C<$var or @array> ) is performed.
 1258 
 1259 Then mathematical formulas in TeX are evaluated within the
 1260 C<\(  tex math mode \)> and
 1261 C<\[ tex display math mode \] >
 1262 constructions, in that order:
 1263 
 1264 =head3 FEQ
 1265 
 1266   FEQ($string);   # processes and outputs the string
 1267 
 1268 
 1269 The mathematical formulas are run through the macro C<FEQ> (Format EQuations) which performs
 1270 several substitutions (see below).
 1271 In C<HTML_tth> mode the resulting code is processed by tth to obtain an HTML version
 1272 of the formula. (In the future processing by WebEQ may be added here as another option.)
 1273 The Latex2HTML mode does nothing
 1274 at this stage; it creates the entire problem before running it through
 1275 TeX and creating the GIF images of the equations.
 1276 
 1277 The resulting string is output (and usually fed into TEXT to be printed in the problem).
 1278 
 1279   Usage:
 1280 
 1281     $string2 = FEQ($string1);
 1282 
 1283 This is a filter which is used to format equations by C<EV2> and C<EV3>, but can also be used on its own.  It is best
 1284 understood with an example.
 1285 
 1286     $string1 = "${a}x^2 + ${b}x + {$c:%.1f}"; $a = 3;, $b = -2; $c = -7.345;
 1287 
 1288 when interpolated becomes:
 1289 
 1290     $string1 = '3x^2 + -2x + {-7.345:%0.1f}
 1291 
 1292 FEQ first changes the number of decimal places displayed, so that the last term becomes -7.3 Then it removes the
 1293 extraneous plus and minus signs, so that the final result is what you want:
 1294 
 1295     $string2 = '3x^2 - 2x -7.3';
 1296 
 1297 (The %0.1f construction
 1298 is the same formatting convention used by Perl and nearly identical to the one used by the C printf statement. Some common
 1299 usage:  %0.3f 3 decimal places, fixed notation; %0.3e 3 significant figures exponential notation; %0.3g uses either fixed
 1300 or exponential notation depending on the size of the number.)
 1301 
 1302 Two additional legacy formatting constructions are also supported:
 1303 
 1304 C<?{$c:%0.3f} > will give a number with 3 decimal places and a negative
 1305 sign if the number is negative, no sign if the number is positive.
 1306 
 1307 C<!{$c:%0.3f}> determines the sign and prints it
 1308 whether the number is positive or negative.
 1309 
 1310 =head3 EV2
 1311 
 1312     TEXT(EV2(@text));
 1313 
 1314     TEXT(EV2(<<END_OF_TEXT));
 1315       text stuff...
 1316     END_OF_TEXT
 1317 
 1318 This is a precursor to EV3.  In this case the constants are interpolated first, before the evaluation of the \{ ...code...\}
 1319 construct. This can lead to unexpected results.  For example C<\{ join(" ", @text) \}> with C<@text = ("Hello","World");> becomes,
 1320 after interpolation, C<\{ join(" ",Hello World) \}> which then causes an error when evaluated because Hello is a bare word.
 1321 C<EV2> can still be useful if you allow for this, and in particular it works on double quoted strings, which lead to
 1322 unexpected results with C<EV3>. Using single quoted strings with C<EV2> may lead to unexpected results.
 1323 
 1324 The unexpected results have to do with the number of times backslashed constructions have to be escaped. It is quite messy.  For
 1325 more details get a good Perl book and then read the code. :-)
 1326 
 1327 
 1328 
 1329 
 1330 =cut
 1331 
 1332 
 1333 sub ev_substring {
 1334     my $string      = shift;
 1335   my $start_delim = shift;
 1336   my $end_delim   = shift;
 1337   my $actionRef   = shift;
 1338   my ($eval_out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report)=();
 1339     my $out = "";
 1340                 #
 1341                 #  DPVC -- 2001/12/07
 1342                 #     original "while ($string)" fails to process the string "0" correctly
 1343                 #
 1344     while ($string ne "") {
 1345                 #
 1346                 #  end DPVC
 1347                 #
 1348         if ($string =~ /\Q$start_delim\E/s) {
 1349        #print "$start_delim $end_delim evaluating_substring=$string<BR>";
 1350         $string =~ s/^(.*?)\Q$start_delim\E//s;  # get string up to next \{ ---treats string as a single line, ignoring returns
 1351         $out .= $1;
 1352        #print "$start_delim $end_delim substring_out=$out<BR>";
 1353         $string =~ s/^(.*?)\Q$end_delim\E//s;  # get perl code up to \} ---treats string as a single line,  ignoring returns
 1354            #print "$start_delim $end_delim evaluate_string=$1<BR>";
 1355         ($eval_out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report) = &$actionRef($1);
 1356         $eval_out = "$start_delim $eval_out $end_delim" if $PG_full_error_report;
 1357         $out = $out . $eval_out;
 1358        #print "$start_delim $end_delim new substring_out=$out<BR><p><BR>";
 1359         $out .="$PAR ERROR $0 in ev_substring, PGbasicmacros.pl:$PAR <PRE>  $@ </PRE>$PAR" if $@;
 1360         }
 1361       else {
 1362         $out .= $string;  # flush the last part of the string
 1363         last;
 1364         }
 1365 
 1366       }
 1367   $out;
 1368 }
 1369 sub  safe_ev {
 1370     my ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report) = &old_safe_ev;   # process input by old_safe_ev first
 1371     $out =~s/\\/\\\\/g;   # protect any new backslashes introduced.
 1372   ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report)
 1373 }
 1374 
 1375 sub  old_safe_ev {
 1376     my $in = shift;
 1377     my   ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report) = PG_restricted_eval("$in;");
 1378     # the addition of the ; seems to provide better error reporting
 1379     if ($PG_eval_errors) {
 1380       my @errorLines = split("\n",$PG_eval_errors);
 1381     #$out = "<PRE>$PAR % ERROR in $0:old_safe_ev, PGbasicmacros.pl: $PAR % There is an error occuring inside evaluation brackets \\{ ...code... \\} $BR % somewhere in an EV2 or EV3 or BEGIN_TEXT block. $BR % Code evaluated:$BR $in $BR % $BR % $errorLines[0]\n % $errorLines[1]$BR % $BR % $BR </PRE> ";
 1382     warn " ERROR in old_safe_ev, PGbasicmacros.pl: <PRE>
 1383      ## There is an error occuring inside evaluation brackets \\{ ...code... \\}
 1384      ## somewhere in an EV2 or EV3 or BEGIN_TEXT block.
 1385      ## Code evaluated:
 1386      ## $in
 1387      ##" .join("\n     ", @errorLines). "
 1388      ##</PRE>$BR
 1389      ";
 1390      $out ="$PAR $BBOLD  $in $EBOLD $PAR";
 1391 
 1392 
 1393   }
 1394 
 1395   ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report);
 1396 }
 1397 
 1398 sub FEQ   {    # Format EQuations
 1399   my $in = shift;
 1400    # formatting numbers -- the ?{} and !{} constructions
 1401   $in =~s/\?\s*\{([.\-\$\w\d]+):?([%.\da-z]*)\}/${ \( &sspf($1,$2) )}/g;
 1402   $in =~s/\!\s*\{([.\-\$\w\d]+):?([%.\da-z]*)\}/${ \( &spf($1,$2) )}/g;
 1403 
 1404   # more formatting numbers -- {number:format} constructions
 1405   $in =~ s/\{(\s*[\+\-\d\.]+[eE]*[\+\-]*\d*):(\%\d*.\d*\w)}/${ \( &spf($1,$2) )}/g;
 1406   $in =~ s/\+\s*\-/ - /g;
 1407   $in =~ s/\-\s*\+/ - /g;
 1408   $in =~ s/\+\s*\+/ + /g;
 1409   $in =~ s/\-\s*\-/ + /g;
 1410   $in;
 1411 }
 1412 
 1413 #sub math_ev3 {
 1414 # my $in = shift; #print "in=$in<BR>";
 1415 # my ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report);
 1416 # $in = FEQ($in);
 1417 # $in =~ s/%/\\%/g;   #  % causes trouble in TeX and HTML_tth it usually (always?) indicates an error, not comment
 1418 # return("$BM $in $EM") unless ($displayMode eq 'HTML_tth');
 1419 # $in = "\\(" . $in . "\\)";
 1420 # $out = tth($in);
 1421 # ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report);
 1422 #
 1423 #}
 1424 #
 1425 #sub display_math_ev3 {
 1426 # my $in = shift; #print "in=$in<BR>";
 1427 # my ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report);
 1428 # $in = FEQ($in);
 1429 # $in =~ s/%/\\%/g;
 1430 # return("$main::BDM $in $main::EDM") unless $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' ;
 1431 # $in = "\\[" . $in . "\\]";
 1432 # $out =tth($in);
 1433 # ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report);
 1434 #}
 1435 
 1436 sub math_ev3 {
 1437   my $in = shift;
 1438   return general_math_ev3($in, "inline");
 1439 }
 1440 
 1441 sub display_math_ev3 {
 1442   my $in = shift;
 1443   return general_math_ev3($in, "display");
 1444 }
 1445 
 1446 sub general_math_ev3 {
 1447   my $in = shift;
 1448   my $mode = shift || "inline";
 1449 
 1450   $in = FEQ($in); # Format EQuations
 1451   $in =~ s/%/\\%/g; # avoid % becoming TeX comments
 1452 
 1453   ## remove leading and trailing spaces so that HTML mode will
 1454   ## not include unwanted spaces as per Davide Cervone.
 1455   $in =~ s/^\s+//;
 1456   $in =~ s/\s+$//;
 1457   ## If it ends with a backslash, there should be another space
 1458   ## at the end
 1459   if($in =~ /\\$/) { $in .= ' ';}
 1460 
 1461   # some modes want the delimiters, some don't
 1462   my $in_delim = $mode eq "inline"
 1463     ? "\\($in\\)"
 1464     : "\\[$in\\]";
 1465 
 1466   my $out;
 1467   if($displayMode eq "HTML_tth") {
 1468     $out = tth($in_delim);
 1469     ## remove leading and trailing spaces as per Davide Cervone.
 1470     $out =~ s/^\s+//;
 1471     $out =~ s/\s+$//;
 1472   } elsif ($displayMode eq "HTML_dpng") {
 1473     # for jj's version of ImageGenerator
 1474     $out = $envir->{'imagegen'}->add($in_delim);
 1475     # for my version of ImageGenerator
 1476     #$out = $envir->{'imagegen'}->add($in, $mode);
 1477   } elsif ($displayMode eq "HTML_img") {
 1478     $out = math2img($in, $mode);
 1479   } elsif ($displayMode eq "HTML_jsMath") {
 1480     $in =~ s/</&lt;/g; $in =~ s/>/&gt;/g;
 1481     $out = '<SPAN CLASS="math">'.$in.'</SPAN>' if $mode eq "inline";
 1482     $out = '<DIV CLASS="math">'.$in.'</DIV>' if $mode eq "display";
 1483   } elsif ($displayMode eq "HTML_asciimath") {
 1484     $out = "`$in`" if $mode eq "inline";
 1485     $out = '<DIV ALIGN="CENTER">`'.$in.'`</DIV>' if $mode eq "display";
 1486   } else {
 1487     $out = "\\($in\\)" if $mode eq "inline";
 1488     $out = "\\[$in\\]" if $mode eq "display";
 1489   }
 1490   return $out;
 1491 }
 1492 
 1493 sub EV2 {
 1494   my $string = join(" ",@_);
 1495   # evaluate code inside of \{  \}  (no nesting allowed)
 1496     $string = ev_substring($string,"\\{","\\}",\&old_safe_ev);
 1497     $string = ev_substring($string,"\\<","\\>",\&old_safe_ev);
 1498   $string = ev_substring($string,"\\(","\\)",\&math_ev3);
 1499   $string = ev_substring($string,"\\[","\\]",\&display_math_ev3);
 1500   # macros for displaying math
 1501   $string =~ s/\\\(/$BM/g;
 1502   $string =~ s/\\\)/$EM/g;
 1503   $string =~ s/\\\[/$BDM/g;
 1504   $string =~ s/\\\]/$EDM/g;
 1505   $string;
 1506 }
 1507 
 1508 sub EV3{
 1509   my $string = join(" ",@_);
 1510   # evaluate code inside of \{  \}  (no nesting allowed)
 1511     $string = ev_substring($string,"\\\\{","\\\\}",\&safe_ev);  # handles \{ \} in single quoted strings of PG files
 1512   # interpolate variables
 1513   my ($evaluated_string,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_errors) = PG_restricted_eval("<<END_OF_EVALUATION_STRING\n$string\nEND_OF_EVALUATION_STRING\n");
 1514   if ($PG_eval_errors) {
 1515       my @errorLines = split("\n",$PG_eval_errors);
 1516       $string =~ s/</&lt;/g; $string =~ s/>/&gt;/g;
 1517     $evaluated_string = "<PRE>$PAR % ERROR in $0:EV3, PGbasicmacros.pl: $PAR % There is an error occuring in the following code:$BR $string $BR % $BR % $errorLines[0]\n % $errorLines[1]$BR % $BR % $BR </PRE> ";
 1518     $@="";
 1519   }
 1520   $string = $evaluated_string;
 1521   $string = ev_substring($string,"\\(","\\)",\&math_ev3);
 1522     $string = ev_substring($string,"\\[","\\]",\&display_math_ev3);
 1523   $string;
 1524 }
 1525 
 1526 sub EV4{
 1527     if ($displayMode eq "HTML_dpng") {
 1528         my $string = join(" ",@_);
 1529         my ($evaluated_string,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_errors) = PG_restricted_eval("<<END_OF_EVALUATION_STRING\n$string\nEND_OF_EVALUATION_STRING\n");
 1530         if ($PG_eval_errors) {
 1531             my @errorLines = split("\n",$PG_eval_errors);
 1532             $string =~ s/</&lt;/g; $string =~ s/>/&gt;/g;
 1533             $evaluated_string = "<PRE>$PAR % ERROR in $0:EV3, PGbasicmacros.pl:".
 1534       "$PAR % There is an error occuring in the following code:$BR ".
 1535       "$string $BR % $BR % $errorLines[0]\n % $errorLines[1]$BR ".
 1536       "% $BR % $BR </PRE> ";
 1537         }
 1538         $string = $evaluated_string;
 1539         $string = $envir{'imagegen'}->add($string);
 1540         $string;
 1541     } else {
 1542       EV3(@_);
 1543     }
 1544 }
 1545 
 1546 
 1547 =head2 Formatting macros
 1548 
 1549   beginproblem()  # generates text listing number and the point value of
 1550                   # the problem. It will also print the file name containing
 1551                   # the problem for users listed in the PRINT_FILE_NAMES_FOR PG_environment
 1552                   # variable.
 1553   OL(@array)      # formats the array as an Ordered List ( <OL> </OL> ) enumerated by letters.
 1554 
 1555   htmlLink($url, $text)
 1556                   # Places a reference to the URL with the specified text in the problem.
 1557                   # A common usage is \{ htmlLink(alias('prob1_help.html') \}, 'for help')
 1558                   # where alias finds the full address of the prob1_help.html file in the same directory
 1559                   # as the problem file
 1560   appletLink($url, $parameters)
 1561                   # For example
 1562                   # appletLink(q!  archive="http: //webwork.math.rochester.edu/gage/xFunctions/xFunctions.zip"
 1563                                   code="xFunctionsLauncher.class"  width=100 height=14!,
 1564                   " parameter text goes here")
 1565                   # will link to xFunctions.
 1566 
 1567   low level:
 1568 
 1569   spf($number, $format)   # prints the number with the given format
 1570   sspf($number, $format)  # prints the number with the given format, always including a sign.
 1571   nicestring($coefficients, $terms) # print a linear combinations of terms using coefficients
 1572   nicestring($coefficients) # uses the coefficients to make a polynomial
 1573       # For example
 1574       # nicestring([1,-2, 0]) produces 'x^2-2x'
 1575       # nicestring([2,0,-1],['', 't', 't^2']) produces '2-t^2'
 1576   protect_underbar($string) # protects the underbar (class_name) in strings which may have to pass through TeX.
 1577 
 1578 =cut
 1579 
 1580 sub beginproblem {
 1581   my $out = "";
 1582   my $problemValue = $envir->{problemValue};
 1583   my $fileName     = $envir->{fileName};
 1584   my $probNum      = $envir->{probNum};
 1585     my $TeXFileName = protect_underbar($envir->{fileName});
 1586     my $l2hFileName = protect_underbar($envir->{fileName});
 1587   my %inlist;
 1588   my $points ='pts';
 1589 
 1590   $points = 'pt' if $problemValue == 1;
 1591   ##    Prepare header for the problem
 1592   grep($inlist{$_}++,@{ $envir->{'PRINT_FILE_NAMES_FOR'} });
 1593   if ( defined($inlist{$envir->{studentLogin}}) and ($inlist{$envir->{studentLogin}} > 0) ) {
 1594     $out = &M3("{\\bf ${probNum}. {\\footnotesize ($problemValue $points) $TeXFileName}}\\newline ",
 1595     " \\begin{rawhtml} ($problemValue $points) <B>$l2hFileName</B><BR>\\end{rawhtml}",
 1596      "($problemValue $points) <B>$fileName</B><BR>"
 1597        ) if ($problemValue ne "");
 1598   } else {
 1599     $out = &M3("{\\bf ${probNum}.} ($problemValue $points) ",
 1600     "($problemValue $points) ",
 1601      "($problemValue $points) "
 1602        ) if ($problemValue ne "");
 1603   }
 1604   $out;
 1605 
 1606 }
 1607 
 1608 sub nicestring {
 1609     my($thingy) = shift;
 1610     my(@coefs) = @{$thingy};
 1611     my $n = scalar(@coefs);
 1612     $thingy = shift;
 1613     my(@others);
 1614     if(defined($thingy)) {
 1615   @others = @{$thingy};
 1616     } else {
 1617   my($j);
 1618   for $j (1..($n-2)) {
 1619       $others[$j-1] = "x^".($n-$j);
 1620   }
 1621   if($n>=2) { $others[$n-2] = "x";}
 1622   $others[$n-1] = "";
 1623     }
 1624     my($j, $k)=(0,0);
 1625     while(($k<$n) && ($coefs[$k]==0)) {$k++;}
 1626     if($k==$n) {return("0");}
 1627     my $ans;
 1628     if($coefs[$k]==1) {$ans = ($others[$k]) ? "$others[$k]" : "1";}
 1629     elsif($coefs[$k]== -1) {$ans =  ($others[$k]) ? "- $others[$k]" : "-1"}
 1630     else { $ans = "$coefs[$k] $others[$k]";}
 1631     $k++;
 1632     for $j ($k..($n-1)) {
 1633   if($coefs[$j] != 0) {
 1634       if($coefs[$j] == 1) {
 1635     $ans .= ($others[$j]) ? "+ $others[$j]" : "+ 1";
 1636       } elsif($coefs[$j] == -1) {
 1637     $ans .= ($others[$j]) ? "- $others[$j]" : "-1";
 1638       } else {
 1639     $ans .= "+ $coefs[$j] $others[$j]";
 1640       }
 1641   }
 1642     }
 1643     return($ans);
 1644 }
 1645 
 1646 # kludge to clean up path names
 1647             ## allow underscore character in set and section names and also allows line breaks at /
 1648 sub protect_underbar {
 1649     my $in = shift;
 1650     if ($displayMode eq 'TeX')  {
 1651 
 1652         $in =~ s|_|\\\_|g;
 1653         $in =~ s|/|\\\-/|g;  # allows an optional hyphenation of the path (in tex)
 1654     }
 1655     $in;
 1656 }
 1657 
 1658 
 1659 # An example of a macro which prints out a list (with letters)
 1660 sub OL {
 1661   my(@array) = @_;
 1662   my $i = 0;
 1663   my  $out=   &M3(
 1664           "\\begin{enumerate}\n",
 1665           " \\begin{rawhtml} <OL TYPE=\"A\" VALUE=\"1\"> \\end{rawhtml} ",
 1666           "<OL TYPE=\"A\" VALUE=\"1\">\n"
 1667           ) ;
 1668   my $elem;
 1669   foreach $elem (@array) {
 1670                 $out .= MODES(
 1671                         TeX=>   "\\item[$ALPHABET[$i].] $elem\n",
 1672                         Latex2HTML=>    " \\begin{rawhtml} <LI> \\end{rawhtml} $elem  ",
 1673                         HTML=>  "<LI> $elem\n",
 1674                         HTML_dpng=>     "<LI> $elem <br /> <br /> \n"
 1675                                         );
 1676     $i++;
 1677   }
 1678   $out .= &M3(
 1679         "\\end{enumerate}\n",
 1680         " \\begin{rawhtml} </OL>\n \\end{rawhtml} ",
 1681         "</OL>\n"
 1682         ) ;
 1683 }
 1684 
 1685 sub htmlLink {
 1686   my $url = shift;
 1687   my $text = shift;
 1688   my $options = shift;
 1689   $options = "" unless defined($options);
 1690   return "$BBOLD\[ broken link:  $text \] $EBOLD" unless defined($url);
 1691   M3( "{\\bf \\underline{$text}}",
 1692       "\\begin{rawhtml}<A HREF=\"$url\" $options>$text</A>\\end{rawhtml}",
 1693       "<A HREF=\"$url\" $options>$text</A>"
 1694       );
 1695 }
 1696 
 1697 
 1698 sub helpLink {
 1699   my $type1 = shift;
 1700   return "" if(not defined($envir{'localHelpURL'}));
 1701   my $type = lc($type1);
 1702   my %typeHash = (
 1703     'interval notation' => 'IntervalNotation.html',
 1704     'units' => 'Units.html',
 1705     );
 1706 
 1707   my $infoRef = $typeHash{$type};
 1708   return htmlLink( $envir{'localHelpURL'}.$infoRef, $type1,
 1709 'target="ww_help" onclick="window.open(this.href,this.target,\'width=550,height=350,scrollbars=yes,resizable=on\'); return false;"');
 1710 }
 1711 
 1712 sub appletLink {
 1713   my $url = shift;
 1714   my $options = shift;
 1715   $options = "" unless defined($options);
 1716   M3( "{\\bf \\underline{APPLET}  }",
 1717       "\\begin{rawhtml} <APPLET $url> $options </APPLET>\\end{rawhtml}",
 1718       "<APPLET $url> $options </APPLET>"
 1719       );
 1720 }
 1721 sub spf {
 1722   my($number,$format) = @_;  # attention, the order of format and number are reversed
 1723   $format = "%4.3g" unless $format;   # default value for format
 1724   sprintf($format, $number);
 1725   }
 1726 sub sspf {
 1727   my($number,$format) = @_;  # attention, the order of format and number are reversed
 1728   $format = "%4.3g" unless $format;   # default value for format
 1729   my $sign = $number>=0 ? " + " : " - ";
 1730   $number = $number>=0 ? $number : -$number;
 1731   $sign .sprintf($format, $number);
 1732   }
 1733 
 1734 =head2  Sorting and other list macros
 1735 
 1736 
 1737 
 1738   Usage:
 1739   lex_sort(@list);   # outputs list in lexigraphic (alphabetical) order
 1740   num_sort(@list);   # outputs list in numerical order
 1741   uniq( @list);      # outputs a list with no duplicates.  Order is unspecified.
 1742 
 1743   PGsort( \&sort_subroutine, @list);
 1744   # &sort_subroutine defines order. It's output must be 1 or 0 (true or false)
 1745 
 1746 =cut
 1747 
 1748 #  uniq gives unique elements of a list:
 1749  sub uniq {
 1750    my (@in) =@_;
 1751    my %temp = ();
 1752    while (@in) {
 1753           $temp{shift(@in)}++;
 1754       }
 1755    my @out =  keys %temp;  # sort is causing trouble with Safe.??
 1756    @out;
 1757 }
 1758 
 1759 sub lex_sort {
 1760   PGsort sub {$_[0] lt $_[1]}, @_;
 1761 }
 1762 sub num_sort {
 1763   PGsort sub {$_[0] < $_[1]}, @_;
 1764 }
 1765 
 1766 
 1767 =head2 Macros for handling tables
 1768 
 1769   Usage:
 1770   begintable( number_of_columns_in_table)
 1771   row(@dataelements)
 1772   endtable()
 1773 
 1774 Example of useage:
 1775 
 1776   BEGIN_TEXT
 1777     This problem tests calculating new functions from old ones:$BR
 1778     From the table below calculate the quantities asked for:$BR
 1779     \{begintable(scalar(@firstrow)+1)\}
 1780     \{row(" \(x\) ",@firstrow)\}
 1781     \{row(" \(f(x)\) ", @secondrow)\}
 1782     \{row(" \(g(x)\) ", @thirdrow)\}
 1783     \{row(" \(f'(x)\) ", @fourthrow)\}
 1784     \{row(" \(g'(x)\) ", @fifthrow)\}
 1785     \{endtable()\}
 1786 
 1787    (The arrays contain numbers which are placed in the table.)
 1788 
 1789   END_TEXT
 1790 
 1791 =cut
 1792 
 1793 sub begintable {
 1794   my ($number)=shift;   #number of columns in table
 1795   my %options = @_;
 1796   warn "begintable(cols) requires a number indicating the number of columns" unless defined($number);
 1797   my $out = "";
 1798   if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
 1799     $out .= "\n\\par\\smallskip\\begin{center}\\begin{tabular}{"  .  "|c" x $number .  "|} \\hline\n";
 1800     }
 1801   elsif ($displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML') {
 1802     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} <TABLE , BORDER=1>\n\\end{rawhtml}";
 1803     }
 1804   elsif ($displayMode eq 'HTML' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_img' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_jsMath' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_asciimath') {
 1805     $out .= "<TABLE BORDER=1>\n"
 1806   }
 1807   else {
 1808     $out = "Error: PGbasicmacros: begintable: Unknown displayMode: $displayMode.\n";
 1809     }
 1810   $out;
 1811   }
 1812 
 1813 sub endtable {
 1814   my $out = "";
 1815   if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
 1816     $out .= "\n\\end {tabular}\\end{center}\\par\\smallskip\n";
 1817     }
 1818   elsif ($displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML') {
 1819     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} </TABLE >\n\\end{rawhtml}";
 1820     }
 1821   elsif ($displayMode eq 'HTML' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng' ||$displayMode eq 'HTML_img' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_jsMath' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_asciimath') {
 1822     $out .= "</TABLE>\n";
 1823     }
 1824   else {
 1825     $out = "Error: PGbasicmacros: endtable: Unknown displayMode: $displayMode.\n";
 1826     }
 1827   $out;
 1828   }
 1829 
 1830 
 1831 sub row {
 1832   my @elements = @_;
 1833   my $out = "";
 1834   if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
 1835     while (@elements) {
 1836       $out .= shift(@elements) . " &";
 1837       }
 1838      chop($out); # remove last &
 1839      $out .= "\\\\ \\hline \n";
 1840      # carriage returns must be added manually for tex
 1841     }
 1842   elsif ($displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML') {
 1843     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml}\n<TR>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n";
 1844     while (@elements) {
 1845       $out .= " \n\\begin{rawhtml}\n<TD> \n\\end{rawhtml}\n" . shift(@elements) . " \n\\begin{rawhtml}\n</TD> \n\\end{rawhtml}\n";
 1846       }
 1847     $out .= " \n\\begin{rawhtml}\n</TR> \n\\end{rawhtml}\n";
 1848   }
 1849   elsif ($displayMode eq 'HTML' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng'||$displayMode eq 'HTML_img' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_jsMath' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_asciimath') {
 1850     $out .= "<TR>\n";
 1851     while (@elements) {
 1852       $out .= "<TD>" . shift(@elements) . "</TD>";
 1853       }
 1854     $out .= "\n</TR>\n";
 1855   }
 1856   else {
 1857     $out = "Error: PGbasicmacros: row: Unknown displayMode: $displayMode.\n";
 1858     }
 1859   $out;
 1860 }
 1861 
 1862 =head2 Macros for displaying static images
 1863 
 1864   Usage:
 1865   $string = image($image, width => 100, height => 100, tex_size => 800)
 1866   $string = image([$image1, $image2], width => 100, height => 100, tex_size => 800)
 1867   $string = caption($string);
 1868   $string = imageRow([$image1, $image2 ], [$caption1, $caption2]);
 1869            # produces a complete table with rows of pictures.
 1870 
 1871 
 1872 =cut
 1873 
 1874 #   More advanced macros
 1875 sub image {
 1876   my $image_ref  = shift;
 1877   my @opt = @_;
 1878   unless (scalar(@opt) % 2 == 0 ) {
 1879     warn "ERROR in image macro.  A list of macros must be inclosed in square brackets.";
 1880   }
 1881   my %in_options = @opt;
 1882   my %known_options = (
 1883     width    => 100,
 1884     height   => 100,
 1885     tex_size => 800,
 1886   );
 1887   # handle options
 1888   my %out_options = %known_options;
 1889   foreach my $opt_name (keys %in_options) {
 1890     if ( exists( $known_options{$opt_name} ) ) {
 1891       $out_options{$opt_name} = $in_options{$opt_name} if exists( $in_options{$opt_name} ) ;
 1892     } else {
 1893       die "Option $opt_name not defined for image. " .
 1894           "Default options are:<BR> ", display_options2(%known_options);
 1895     }
 1896   }
 1897   my $width       = $out_options{width};
 1898   my $height      = $out_options{height};
 1899   my $tex_size    = $out_options{tex_size};
 1900   my $width_ratio = $tex_size*(.001);
 1901   my @image_list  = ();
 1902 
 1903   if (ref($image_ref) =~ /ARRAY/ ) {
 1904     @image_list = @{$image_ref};
 1905   } else {
 1906     push(@image_list,$image_ref);
 1907   }
 1908 
 1909   my @output_list = ();
 1910     while(@image_list) {
 1911     my $imageURL = alias(shift @image_list);
 1912     my $out="";
 1913 
 1914     if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
 1915       my $imagePath = $imageURL; # in TeX mode, alias gives us a path, not a URL
 1916       if (defined $envir->{texDisposition} and $envir->{texDisposition} eq "pdf") {
 1917         # We're going to create PDF files with our TeX (using pdflatex), so
 1918         # alias should have given us the path to a PNG image. What we need
 1919         # to do is find out the dimmensions of this image, since pdflatex
 1920         # is too dumb to live.
 1921 
 1922         #my ($height, $width) = getImageDimmensions($imagePath);
 1923         ##warn "&image: $imagePath $height $width\n";
 1924         #unless ($height and $width) {
 1925         # warn "Couldn't get the dimmensions of image $imagePath.\n"
 1926         #}
 1927         #$out = "\\includegraphics[bb=0 0 $height $width,width=$width_ratio\\linewidth]{$imagePath}\n";
 1928         $out = "\\includegraphics[width=$width_ratio\\linewidth]{$imagePath}\n";
 1929       } else {
 1930         # Since we're not creating PDF files, alias should have given us the
 1931         # path to an EPS file. latex can get its dimmensions no problem!
 1932 
 1933         $out = "\\includegraphics[width=$width_ratio\\linewidth]{$imagePath}\n";
 1934       }
 1935     } elsif ($displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML') {
 1936       my $wid = ($envir->{onTheFlyImageSize} || 0)+ 30;
 1937       $out = qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<A HREF= "$imageURL" TARGET="_blank" onclick="window.open(this.href,this.target, 'width=$wid,height=$wid,scrollbars=yes,resizable=on'); return false;"><IMG SRC="$imageURL"  WIDTH="$width" HEIGHT="$height"></A>\n
 1938       \\end{rawhtml}\n !
 1939     } elsif ($displayMode eq 'HTML' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_img' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_jsMath' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_asciimath') {
 1940       my $wid = ($envir->{onTheFlyImageSize} || 0) +30;
 1941       $out = qq!<A HREF= "$imageURL" TARGET="_blank" onclick="window.open(this.href,this.target, 'width=$wid,height=$wid,scrollbars=yes,resizable=on'); return false;"><IMG SRC="$imageURL"  WIDTH="$width" HEIGHT="$height"></A>
 1942       !
 1943     } else {
 1944       $out = "Error: PGbasicmacros: image: Unknown displayMode: $displayMode.\n";
 1945     }
 1946     push(@output_list, $out);
 1947   }
 1948   return wantarray ? @output_list : $output_list[0];
 1949 }
 1950 
 1951 # This is legacy code.
 1952 sub images {
 1953   my @in = @_;
 1954   my @outlist = ();
 1955   while (@in) {
 1956      push(@outlist,&image( shift(@in) ) );
 1957    }
 1958   @outlist;
 1959 }
 1960 
 1961 
 1962 sub caption {
 1963   my ($out) = @_;
 1964   $out = " $out \n" if $displayMode eq 'TeX';
 1965   $out = " $out  " if $displayMode eq 'HTML';
 1966   $out = " $out  " if $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth';
 1967   $out = " $out  " if $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng';
 1968   $out = " $out  " if $displayMode eq 'HTML_img';
 1969   $out = " $out  " if $displayMode eq 'HTML_jsMath';
 1970   $out = " $out  " if $displayMode eq 'HTML_asciimath';
 1971   $out = " $out  " if $displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML';
 1972     $out;
 1973 }
 1974 
 1975 sub captions {
 1976   my @in = @_;
 1977   my @outlist = ();
 1978   while (@in) {
 1979      push(@outlist,&caption( shift(@in) ) );
 1980   }
 1981   @outlist;
 1982 }
 1983 
 1984 sub imageRow {
 1985 
 1986   my $pImages = shift;
 1987   my $pCaptions=shift;
 1988   my $out = "";
 1989   my @images = @$pImages;
 1990   my @captions = @$pCaptions;
 1991   my $number = @images;
 1992   # standard options
 1993   my %options = ( 'tex_size' => 200,  # width for fitting 4 across
 1994                   'height' => 100,
 1995                   'width' => 100,
 1996                   @_            # overwrite any default options
 1997                 );
 1998 
 1999   if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
 2000     $out .= "\n\\par\\smallskip\\begin{center}\\begin{tabular}{"  .  "|c" x $number .  "|} \\hline\n";
 2001     while (@images) {
 2002       $out .= &image( shift(@images),%options ) . '&';
 2003     }
 2004     chop($out);
 2005     $out .= "\\\\ \\hline \n";
 2006     while (@captions) {
 2007       $out .= &caption( shift(@captions) ) . '&';
 2008     }
 2009     chop($out);
 2010     $out .= "\\\\ \\hline \n\\end {tabular}\\end{center}\\par\\smallskip\n";
 2011   } elsif ($displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML'){
 2012 
 2013     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} <TABLE  BORDER=1><TR>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n";
 2014     while (@images) {
 2015       $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} <TD>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n" . &image( shift(@images),%options )
 2016               . "\n\\begin{rawhtml} </TD>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n" ;
 2017     }
 2018 
 2019     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml}</TR><TR>\\end{rawhtml}\n";
 2020     while (@captions) {
 2021       $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} <TH>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n".&caption( shift(@captions) )
 2022               . "\n\\begin{rawhtml} </TH>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n" ;
 2023     }
 2024 
 2025     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} </TR> </TABLE >\n\\end{rawhtml}";
 2026   } elsif ($displayMode eq 'HTML' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng'|| $displayMode eq 'HTML_img' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_jsMath' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_asciimath'){
 2027     $out .= "<P>\n <TABLE BORDER=2 CELLPADDING=3 CELLSPACING=2 ><TR ALIGN=CENTER    VALIGN=MIDDLE>\n";
 2028     while (@images) {
 2029       $out .= " \n<TD>". &image( shift(@images),%options ) ."</TD>";
 2030     }
 2031     $out .= "</TR>\n<TR>";
 2032     while (@captions) {
 2033       $out .= " <TH>". &caption( shift(@captions) ) ."</TH>";
 2034     }
 2035     $out .= "\n</TR></TABLE></P>\n"
 2036   }
 2037   else {
 2038     $out = "Error: PGbasicmacros: imageRow: Unknown languageMode: $displayMode.\n";
 2039     warn $out;
 2040   }
 2041   $out;
 2042 }
 2043 
 2044 
 2045 ###########
 2046 # Auxiliary macros
 2047 
 2048 sub display_options2{
 2049   my %options = @_;
 2050   my $out_string = "";
 2051   foreach my $key (keys %options) {
 2052     $out_string .= " $key => $options{$key},<BR>";
 2053   }
 2054   $out_string;
 2055 }
 2056 
 2057 
 2058 1;

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