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Revision 2143 - (download) (as text) (annotate)
Fri May 21 23:56:48 2004 UTC (15 years, 6 months ago) by apizer
File size: 63754 byte(s)
Use the new PGsort which uses a true/false compare (e.g. < or lt )
rather than a -1,0,1 compare (e.g. <=> or cmp ).

Arnie

    1 
    2 
    3 ####################################################################
    4 # Copyright @ 1995-1998 University of Rochester
    5 # All Rights Reserved
    6 ####################################################################
    7 
    8 =head1 NAME
    9 
   10     PGbasicmacros.pl --- located in the courseScripts directory
   11 
   12 =head1 SYNPOSIS
   13 
   14 
   15 
   16 =head1 DESCRIPTION
   17 
   18 
   19 
   20 =cut
   21 
   22 # this is equivalent to use strict, but can be used within the Safe compartment.
   23 BEGIN{
   24   be_strict;
   25 }
   26 
   27 
   28 my $displayMode;
   29 
   30 my ($PAR,
   31   $BR,
   32   $LQ,
   33   $RQ,
   34   $BM,
   35   $EM,
   36   $BDM,
   37   $EDM,
   38   $LTS,
   39   $GTS,
   40   $LTE,
   41   $GTE,
   42   $BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN,
   43   $END_ONE_COLUMN,
   44   $SOL,
   45   $SOLUTION,
   46   $HINT,
   47   $US,
   48   $SPACE,
   49   $BBOLD,
   50   $EBOLD,
   51   $BITALIC,
   52   $EITALIC,
   53   $BCENTER,
   54   $ECENTER,
   55   $HR,
   56   $LBRACE,
   57   $RBRACE,
   58   $LB,
   59   $RB,
   60   $DOLLAR,
   61   $PERCENT,
   62   $CARET,
   63   $PI,
   64   $E,
   65   @ALPHABET,
   66   $envir,
   67   $PG_random_generator,
   68   $inputs_ref,
   69   $rh_sticky_answers,
   70   $r_ans_rule_count,
   71   );
   72 
   73 sub _PGbasicmacros_init {
   74 
   75     # The big problem is that at compile time in the cached Safe compartment
   76     # main:: has one definition, probably Safe::Root1::
   77     # At runtime main has another definition Safe::Rootx:: where x is > 1
   78 
   79     # It is important to
   80     # initialize the my variable version of $displayMode from the "runtime" version
   81     # of main::displayMode
   82 
   83     $displayMode         =    main::PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::displayMode!);
   84 
   85 # This is initializes the remaining variables in the runtime main:: compartment.
   86 
   87 main::PG_restricted_eval( <<'EndOfFile');
   88     $displayMode            = $displayMode;
   89 
   90   $main::PAR        = PAR();
   91   $main::BR       = BR();
   92   $main::LQ       = LQ();
   93   $main::RQ       = RQ();
   94   $main::BM       = BM();
   95   $main::EM       = EM();
   96   $main::BDM        = BDM();
   97   $main::EDM        = EDM();
   98   $main::LTS        = LTS();
   99   $main::GTS        = GTS();
  100   $main::LTE        = LTE();
  101   $main::GTE        = GTE();
  102   $main::BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN = BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN();
  103   $main::END_ONE_COLUMN = END_ONE_COLUMN();
  104   $main::SOL        = SOLUTION_HEADING();
  105   $main::SOLUTION     = SOLUTION_HEADING();
  106   $main::HINT       = HINT_HEADING();
  107   $main::US       = US();
  108   $main::SPACE      = SPACE();
  109   $main::BBOLD      = BBOLD();
  110   $main::EBOLD      = EBOLD();
  111   $main::BITALIC      = BITALIC();
  112   $main::EITALIC          = EITALIC();
  113   $main::BCENTER          = BCENTER();
  114   $main::ECENTER          = ECENTER();
  115   $main::HR       = HR();
  116   $main::LBRACE     = LBRACE();
  117   $main::RBRACE     = RBRACE();
  118   $main::LB       = LB();
  119   $main::RB       = RB();
  120   $main::DOLLAR     = DOLLAR();
  121   $main::PERCENT      = PERCENT();
  122   $main::CARET      = CARET();
  123   $main::PI       = PI();
  124   $main::E        = E();
  125   @main::ALPHABET     = ('A'..'ZZ');
  126   %main::STICKY_ANSWERS   = ();
  127 
  128 
  129 EndOfFile
  130 
  131 # Next we transfer the correct definitions in the main:: compartment to the local my variables
  132 # This can't be done inside the eval above because my variables seem to be invisible inside the eval
  133 
  134 
  135     $PAR         = PAR();
  136   $BR            = BR();
  137   $LQ            = LQ();
  138   $RQ            = RQ();
  139   $BM            = BM();
  140   $EM            = EM();
  141   $BDM         = BDM();
  142   $EDM         = EDM();
  143   $LTS         = LTS();
  144   $GTS         = GTS();
  145   $LTE         = LTE();
  146   $GTE         = GTE();
  147   $BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN  = BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN();
  148   $END_ONE_COLUMN      = END_ONE_COLUMN();
  149   $SOL         = SOLUTION_HEADING();
  150   $SOLUTION      = SOLUTION_HEADING();
  151   $HINT        = HINT_HEADING();
  152   $US            = US();
  153   $SPACE           = SPACE();
  154   $BBOLD           = BBOLD();
  155   $EBOLD           = EBOLD();
  156   $BITALIC       = BITALIC();
  157   $EITALIC             = EITALIC();
  158   $BCENTER             = BCENTER();
  159   $ECENTER             = ECENTER();
  160   $HR            = HR();
  161   $LBRACE          = LBRACE();
  162   $RBRACE          = RBRACE();
  163   $LB            = LB();
  164   $RB            = RB();
  165   $DOLLAR          = DOLLAR();
  166   $PERCENT       = PERCENT();
  167   $CARET           = CARET();
  168   $PI            = PI();
  169   $E             = E();
  170   @ALPHABET      = ('A'..'ZZ');
  171 
  172    $envir               = PG_restricted_eval(q!\%main::envir!);
  173    $PG_random_generator = PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::PG_random_generator!);
  174    $inputs_ref          = $envir{inputs_ref};
  175    $rh_sticky_answers   = PG_restricted_eval(q!\%main::STICKY_ANSWERS!);
  176    $r_ans_rule_count     = PG_restricted_eval(q!\$ans_rule_count!);
  177 }
  178 
  179 =head2  Answer blank macros:
  180 
  181 These produce answer blanks of various sizes or pop up lists or radio answer buttons.
  182 The names for the answer blanks are
  183 generated implicitly.
  184 
  185   ans_rule( width )
  186   tex_ans_rule( width )
  187   ans_radio_buttons(value1=>label1, value2,label2 => value3,label3=>...)
  188   pop_up_list(@list)  # list consists of (value => label,  PR => "Product rule",...)
  189 
  190 To indicate the checked position of radio buttons put a '%' in front of the value: C<ans_radio_buttons(1, 'Yes','%2','No')>
  191 will have 'No' checked.  C<tex_ans_rule> works inside math equations in C<HTML_tth> mode.  It does not work in C<Latex2HTML> mode
  192 since this mode produces gif pictures.
  193 
  194 
  195 The following method is defined in F<PG.pl> for entering the answer evaluators corresponding
  196 to answer rules with automatically generated names.  The answer evaluators are matched with the
  197 answer rules in the order in which they appear on the page.
  198 
  199   ANS(ans_evaluator1, ans_evaluator2,...);
  200 
  201 These are more primitive macros which produce answer blanks for specialized cases when complete
  202 control over the matching of answers blanks and answer evaluators is desired.
  203 The names of the answer blanks must be generated manually, and it is best if they do NOT begin
  204 with the default answer prefix (currently AnSwEr).
  205 
  206   labeled_ans_rule(name, width)  # an alias for NAMED_ANS_RULE where width defaults to 20 if omitted.
  207 
  208   NAMED_ANS_RULE(name, width)
  209   NAMED_ANS_BOX(name, rows, cols)
  210   NAMED_ANS_RADIO(name, value,label,)
  211   NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION(name, value,label)
  212   NAMED_ANS_RADIO_BUTTONS(name,value1,label1,value2,label2,...)
  213   check_box('-name' =>answer5,'-value' =>'statement3','-label' =>'I loved this course!'   )
  214   NAMED_POP_UP_LIST($name, @list) # list consists of (value => tag,  PR => "Product rule",...)
  215 
  216 (Name is the name of the variable, value is the value given to the variable when this option is selected,
  217 and label is the text printed next to the button or check box.    Check box variables can have multiple values.)
  218 
  219 NAMED_ANS_RADIO_BUTTONS creates a sequence of NAMED_ANS_RADIO and NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION  items which
  220 are  output either as an array or, in scalar context, as the array glued together with spaces.  It is
  221 usually easier to use this than to manually construct the radio buttons by hand.  However, sometimes
  222  extra flexibility is desiredin which case:
  223 
  224 When entering radio buttons using the "NAMED" format, you should use NAMED_ANS_RADIO button for the first button
  225 and then use NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION for the remaining buttons.  NAMED_ANS_RADIO requires a matching answer evalutor,
  226 while NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION does not. The name used for NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION should match the name
  227 used for NAMED_ANS_RADIO (and the associated answer evaluator).
  228 
  229 
  230 The following method is defined in  F<PG.pl> for entering the answer evaluators corresponding
  231 to answer rules with automatically generated names.  The answer evaluators are matched with the
  232 answer rules in the order in which they appear on the page.
  233 
  234       NAMED_ANS(name1 => ans_evaluator1, name2 => ans_evaluator2,...);
  235 
  236 These auxiliary macros are defined in PG.pl
  237 
  238 
  239   NEW_ANS_NAME( number );   # produces a new answer blank name from a number by adding a prefix (AnSwEr)
  240                             # and registers this name as an implicitly labeled answer
  241                             # Its use is paired with each answer evaluator being entered using ANS()
  242 
  243     ANS_NUM_TO_NAME(number);  # adds the prefix (AnSwEr) to the number, but does nothing else.
  244 
  245   RECORD_ANS_NAME( name );  # records the order in which the answer blank  is rendered
  246                             # This is called by all of the constructs above, but must
  247                             # be called explicitly if an input blank is constructed explictly
  248                             # using HTML code.
  249 
  250 These are legacy macros:
  251 
  252   ANS_RULE( number, width );                  # equivalent to NAMED_ANS_RULE( NEW_ANS_NAME(number), width)
  253   ANS_BOX( question_number,height, width );       # equivalent to NAMED_ANS_BOX( NEW_ANS_NAME(number), height, width)
  254   ANS_RADIO( question_number, value,tag );        # equivalent to NAMED_ANS_RADIO( NEW_ANS_NAME(number), value,tag)
  255   ANS_RADIO_OPTION( question_number, value,tag );   # equivalent to NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION( ANS_NUM_TO_NAME(number), value,tag)
  256 
  257 
  258 =cut
  259 
  260 
  261 
  262 sub labeled_ans_rule {   # syntactic sugar for NAMED_ANS_RULE
  263   my($name,$col) = @_;
  264   $col = 20 unless defined($col);
  265   NAMED_ANS_RULE($name,$col);
  266 }
  267 
  268 sub NAMED_ANS_RULE {
  269   my($name,$col) = @_;
  270   my $len = 0.07*$col;
  271   my $answer_value = '';
  272   $answer_value = ${$inputs_ref}{$name} if    defined(${$inputs_ref}{$name});
  273     if ($answer_value =~ /\0/ ) {
  274       my @answers = split("\0", $answer_value);
  275       $answer_value = shift(@answers);  # use up the first answer
  276       $rh_sticky_answers->{$name}=\@answers;
  277       # store the rest -- beacuse this stores to a main:; variable
  278       # it must be evaluated at run time
  279       $answer_value= '' unless defined($answer_value);
  280   } elsif (ref($answer_value) eq 'ARRAY') {
  281     my @answers = @{ $answer_value};
  282       $answer_value = shift(@answers);  # use up the first answer
  283       $rh_sticky_answers->{$name}=\@answers;
  284       # store the rest -- beacuse this stores to a main:; variable
  285       # it must be evaluated at run time
  286       $answer_value= '' unless defined($answer_value);
  287   }
  288 
  289   $answer_value =~ tr/\\$@`//d;   ## make sure student answers can not be interpolated by e.g. EV3
  290   $name = RECORD_ANS_NAME($name);
  291 
  292   # incorporated Davide Cervone's changes
  293   # removed newlines from around <INPUT> tags
  294   # made TeX rule be based on specified width rather than varying size.
  295   my $tcol = $col/2 > 3 ? $col/2 : 3;  ## get max
  296   $tcol = $tcol < 40 ? $tcol : 40;     ## get min
  297 
  298   MODES(
  299     TeX => "\\mbox{\\parbox[t]{${tcol}ex}{\\hrulefill}}",
  300     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME=\"$name\" VALUE = \"\">\\end{rawhtml}!,
  301     HTML => qq!<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME="$name" VALUE = "$answer_value">\n
  302                <INPUT TYPE=HIDDEN  NAME="previous_$name" VALUE = "$answer_value">
  303           !
  304 
  305   );
  306 }
  307 
  308 sub NAMED_ANS_RULE_OPTION {   # deprecated
  309   &NAMED_ANS_RULE_EXTENSION;
  310 }
  311 
  312 sub NAMED_ANS_RULE_EXTENSION {
  313   my($name,$col) = @_;
  314   my $len = 0.07*$col;
  315   my $answer_value = '';
  316   $answer_value = ${$inputs_ref}{$name} if defined(${$inputs_ref}{$name});
  317   if ( defined( $rh_sticky_answers->{$name} ) ) {
  318     $answer_value = shift( @{ $rh_sticky_answers->{$name} });
  319     $answer_value = '' unless defined($answer_value);
  320   }
  321   $answer_value =~ tr/\\$@`//d;   ## make sure student answers can not be interpolated by e.g. EV3
  322   MODES(
  323     TeX => '\\hrulefill\\quad ',
  324     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME=\"$name\" VALUE = \"\">\n\\end{rawhtml}\n!,
  325     HTML => qq!<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME = "$name" VALUE = "$answer_value">\n
  326                <INPUT TYPE=HIDDEN  NAME="previous_$name" VALUE = "$answer_value">
  327               !
  328   );
  329 }
  330 
  331 sub ANS_RULE {  #deprecated
  332   my($number,$col) = @_;
  333   my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME($number);
  334     NAMED_ANS_RULE($name,$col);
  335 }
  336 
  337 
  338 sub  NAMED_ANS_BOX {
  339   my($name,$row,$col) = @_;
  340   $row = 10 unless defined($row);
  341   $col = 80 unless defined($col);
  342   $name = RECORD_ANS_NAME($name);
  343   my $len = 0.07*$col;
  344   my $height = .07*$row;
  345   my $answer_value = '';
  346   $answer_value = $inputs_ref->{$name} if defined( $inputs_ref->{$name} );
  347   $answer_value =~ tr/\\$@`//d;   ## make sure student answers can not be interpolated by e.g. EV3
  348   my $out = M3(
  349        qq!\\vskip $height in \\hrulefill\\quad !,
  350        qq!\\begin{rawhtml}<TEXTAREA NAME="$name" ROWS="$row" COLS="$col"
  351                WRAP="VIRTUAL">$answer_value</TEXTAREA>\\end{rawhtml}!,
  352          qq!<TEXTAREA NAME="$name" ROWS="$row" COLS="$col"
  353                WRAP="VIRTUAL">$answer_value</TEXTAREA>
  354              <INPUT TYPE=HIDDEN  NAME="previous_$name" VALUE = "$answer_value">
  355            !
  356          );
  357   $out;
  358 }
  359 
  360 sub  ANS_BOX { #deprecated
  361   my($number,$row,$col) = @_;
  362   my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME($number);
  363     NAMED_ANS_BOX($name,$row,$col);
  364 }
  365 
  366 sub NAMED_ANS_RADIO {
  367   my $name = shift;
  368   my $value = shift;
  369     my $tag =shift;
  370     $name = RECORD_ANS_NAME($name);
  371     my $checked = '';
  372     if ($value =~/^\%/) {
  373       $value =~ s/^\%//;
  374       $checked = 'CHECKED'
  375     }
  376   if (defined($inputs_ref->{$name}) ) {
  377     if ($inputs_ref->{$name} eq $value) {
  378       $checked = 'CHECKED'
  379     } else {
  380       $checked = '';
  381     }
  382 
  383     }
  384 
  385   MODES(
  386     TeX => qq!\\item{$tag}\n!,
  387     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=RADIO NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>\\end{rawhtml}$tag!,
  388     HTML => qq!<INPUT TYPE=RADIO NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>$tag!
  389   );
  390 
  391 }
  392 
  393 sub NAMED_ANS_RADIO_OPTION { #deprecated
  394   &NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION;
  395 }
  396 
  397 sub NAMED_ANS_RADIO_EXTENSION {
  398   my $name = shift;
  399   my $value = shift;
  400   my $tag =shift;
  401 
  402 
  403     my $checked = '';
  404     if ($value =~/^\%/) {
  405       $value =~ s/^\%//;
  406       $checked = 'CHECKED'
  407     }
  408   if (defined($inputs_ref->{$name}) ) {
  409     if ($inputs_ref->{$name} eq $value) {
  410       $checked = 'CHECKED'
  411     } else {
  412       $checked = '';
  413     }
  414 
  415     }
  416 
  417   MODES(
  418     TeX => qq!\\item{$tag}\n!,
  419     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=RADIO NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>\\end{rawhtml}$tag!,
  420     HTML => qq!<INPUT TYPE=RADIO NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>$tag!
  421   );
  422 
  423 }
  424 
  425 sub NAMED_ANS_RADIO_BUTTONS {
  426     my $name  =shift;
  427     my $value = shift;
  428     my $tag = shift;
  429 
  430 
  431   my @out = ();
  432   push(@out, NAMED_ANS_RADIO($name, $value,$tag));
  433   my @buttons = @_;
  434   while (@buttons) {
  435     $value = shift @buttons;  $tag = shift @buttons;
  436     push(@out, NAMED_ANS_RADIO_OPTION($name, $value,$tag));
  437   }
  438   (wantarray) ? @out : join(" ",@out);
  439 }
  440 sub ANS_RADIO {
  441   my $number = shift;
  442   my $value = shift;
  443   my $tag =shift;
  444     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME($number);
  445   NAMED_ANS_RADIO($name,$value,$tag);
  446 }
  447 
  448 sub ANS_RADIO_OPTION {
  449   my $number = shift;
  450   my $value = shift;
  451   my $tag =shift;
  452 
  453 
  454     my $name = ANS_NUM_TO_NAME($number);
  455   NAMED_ANS_RADIO_OPTION($name,$value,$tag);
  456 }
  457 sub ANS_RADIO_BUTTONS {
  458     my $number  =shift;
  459     my $value = shift;
  460     my $tag = shift;
  461 
  462 
  463   my @out = ();
  464   push(@out, ANS_RADIO($number, $value,$tag));
  465   my @buttons = @_;
  466   while (@buttons) {
  467       $value = shift @buttons; $tag = shift @buttons;
  468     push(@out, ANS_RADIO_OPTION($number, $value,$tag));
  469   }
  470   (wantarray) ? @out : join(" ",@out);
  471 }
  472 ##############################################
  473 #   contained_in( $elem, $array_reference or null separated string);
  474 #   determine whether element is equal
  475 #   ( in the sense of eq,  not ==, ) to an element in the array.
  476 ##############################################
  477 sub contained_in {
  478   my $element = shift;
  479   my @input_list    = @_;
  480   my @output_list = ();
  481   # Expand the list -- convert references to  arrays to arrays
  482   # Convert null separated strings to arrays
  483   foreach my $item   (@input_list ) {
  484     if ($item =~ /\0/) {
  485       push @output_list,   split('\0', $item);
  486      } elsif (ref($item) =~/ARRAY/) {
  487       push @output_list, @{$item};
  488      } else {
  489       push @output_list, $item;
  490      }
  491   }
  492 
  493   my @match_list = grep {$element eq $_ } @output_list;
  494   if ( @match_list ) {
  495     return 1;
  496   } else {
  497     return 0;
  498   }
  499 }
  500 
  501 ##########################
  502 # If multiple boxes are checked then the $inputs_ref->{name }will be a null separated string
  503 # or a reference to an array.
  504 ##########################
  505 
  506 sub NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX {
  507   my $name = shift;
  508   my $value = shift;
  509     my $tag =shift;
  510     $name = RECORD_ANS_NAME($name);
  511 
  512     my $checked = '';
  513     if ($value =~/^\%/) {
  514       $value =~ s/^\%//;
  515       $checked = 'CHECKED'
  516     }
  517 
  518   if (defined($inputs_ref->{$name}) ) {
  519     if ( contained_in($value, $inputs_ref->{$name} ) ) {
  520       $checked = 'CHECKED'
  521     }
  522     else {
  523       $checked = '';
  524     }
  525 
  526     }
  527 
  528   MODES(
  529     TeX => qq!\\item{$tag}\n!,
  530     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=CHECKBOX NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>\\end{rawhtml}$tag!,
  531     HTML => qq!<INPUT TYPE=CHECKBOX NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>$tag!
  532   );
  533 
  534 }
  535 
  536 sub NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX_OPTION {
  537   my $name = shift;
  538   my $value = shift;
  539   my $tag =shift;
  540 
  541     my $checked = '';
  542     if ($value =~/^\%/) {
  543       $value =~ s/^\%//;
  544       $checked = 'CHECKED'
  545     }
  546 
  547   if (defined($inputs_ref->{$name}) ) {
  548     if ( contained_in($value, $inputs_ref->{$name}) ) {
  549       $checked = 'CHECKED'
  550     }
  551     else {
  552       $checked = '';
  553     }
  554 
  555     }
  556 
  557   MODES(
  558     TeX => qq!\\item{$tag}\n!,
  559     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=CHECKBOX NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>\\end{rawhtml}$tag!,
  560     HTML => qq!<INPUT TYPE=CHECKBOX NAME="$name" VALUE="$value" $checked>$tag!
  561   );
  562 
  563 }
  564 
  565 sub NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX_BUTTONS {
  566     my $name  =shift;
  567     my $value = shift;
  568     my $tag = shift;
  569 
  570   my @out = ();
  571   push(@out, NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX($name, $value,$tag));
  572 
  573   my @buttons = @_;
  574   while (@buttons) {
  575     $value = shift @buttons;  $tag = shift @buttons;
  576     push(@out, NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX_OPTION($name, $value,$tag));
  577   }
  578 
  579   (wantarray) ? @out : join(" ",@out);
  580 }
  581 
  582 sub ANS_CHECKBOX {
  583   my $number = shift;
  584   my $value = shift;
  585   my $tag =shift;
  586     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME($number);
  587 
  588   NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX($name,$value,$tag);
  589 }
  590 
  591 sub ANS_CHECKBOX_OPTION {
  592   my $number = shift;
  593   my $value = shift;
  594   my $tag =shift;
  595     my $name = ANS_NUM_TO_NAME($number);
  596 
  597   NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX_OPTION($name,$value,$tag);
  598 }
  599 
  600 
  601 
  602 sub ANS_CHECKBOX_BUTTONS {
  603     my $number  =shift;
  604     my $value = shift;
  605     my $tag = shift;
  606 
  607   my @out = ();
  608   push(@out, ANS_CHECKBOX($number, $value, $tag));
  609 
  610   my @buttons = @_;
  611   while (@buttons) {
  612     $value = shift @buttons;  $tag = shift @buttons;
  613     push(@out, ANS_CHECKBOX_OPTION($number, $value,$tag));
  614   }
  615 
  616   (wantarray) ? @out : join(" ",@out);
  617 }
  618 
  619 sub ans_rule {
  620   my $len = shift;     # gives the optional length of the answer blank
  621   $len    = 20 unless $len ;
  622   my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME(inc_ans_rule_count());
  623   NAMED_ANS_RULE($name ,$len);
  624 }
  625 sub ans_rule_extension {
  626   my $len = shift;
  627     $len    = 20 unless $len ;
  628   my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME($$r_ans_rule_count);  # don't update the answer name
  629   NAMED_ANS_RULE($name ,$len);
  630 }
  631 sub ans_radio_buttons {
  632   my $name  = NEW_ANS_NAME(inc_ans_rule_count());
  633   my @radio_buttons = NAMED_ANS_RADIO_BUTTONS($name, @_);
  634 
  635   if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
  636     $radio_buttons[0] = "\n\\begin{itemize}\n" . $radio_buttons[0];
  637     $radio_buttons[$#radio_buttons] .= "\n\\end{itemize}\n";
  638   }
  639 
  640   (wantarray) ? @radio_buttons: join(" ", @radio_buttons);
  641 }
  642 
  643 #added 6/14/2000 by David Etlinger
  644 sub ans_checkbox {
  645   my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME( inc_ans_rule_count() );
  646   my @checkboxes = NAMED_ANS_CHECKBOX_BUTTONS( $name, @_ );
  647 
  648   if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
  649     $checkboxes[0] = "\n\\begin{itemize}\n" . $checkboxes[0];
  650     $checkboxes[$#checkboxes] .= "\n\\end{itemize}\n";
  651   }
  652 
  653   (wantarray) ? @checkboxes: join(" ", @checkboxes);
  654 }
  655 
  656 
  657 ## define a version of ans_rule which will work inside TeX math mode or display math mode -- at least for tth mode.
  658 ## This is great for displayed fractions.
  659 ## This will not work with latex2HTML mode since it creates gif equations.
  660 
  661 sub tex_ans_rule {
  662   my $len = shift;
  663   $len    = 20 unless $len ;
  664     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME(inc_ans_rule_count());
  665     my $answer_rule = NAMED_ANS_RULE($name ,$len);  # we don't want to create three answer rules in different modes.
  666     my $out = MODES(
  667                      'TeX' => $answer_rule,
  668                      'Latex2HTML' => '\\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
  669                      'HTML_tth' => '\\begin{rawhtml} '. $answer_rule.'\\end{rawhtml}',
  670                      'HTML_dpng' => '\\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
  671                      'HTML'     => $answer_rule
  672                    );
  673 
  674     $out;
  675 }
  676 sub tex_ans_rule_extension {
  677   my $len = shift;
  678   $len    = 20 unless $len ;
  679     my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME($$r_ans_rule_count);
  680     my $answer_rule = NAMED_ANS_RULE($name ,$len);  # we don't want to create three answer rules in different modes.
  681     my $out = MODES(
  682                      'TeX' => $answer_rule,
  683                      'Latex2HTML' => '\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
  684                      'HTML_tth' => '\\begin{rawhtml} '. $answer_rule.'\\end{rawhtml}',
  685                      'HTML_dpng' => '\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
  686                      'HTML'     => $answer_rule
  687                    );
  688 
  689     $out;
  690 }
  691 # still needs some cleanup.
  692 sub NAMED_TEX_ANS_RULE {
  693     my $name = shift;
  694   my $len = shift;
  695   $len    = 20 unless $len ;
  696     my $answer_rule = NAMED_ANS_RULE($name ,$len);  # we don't want to create three answer rules in different modes.
  697     my $out = MODES(
  698                      'TeX' => $answer_rule,
  699                      'Latex2HTML' => '\\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
  700                      'HTML_tth' => '\\begin{rawhtml} '. $answer_rule.'\\end{rawhtml}',
  701                      'HTML_dpng' => '\\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
  702                      'HTML'     => $answer_rule
  703                    );
  704 
  705     $out;
  706 }
  707 sub NAMED_TEX_ANS_RULE_EXTENSION {
  708   my $name = shift;
  709   my $len = shift;
  710   $len    = 20 unless $len ;
  711     my $answer_rule = NAMED_ANS_RULE_EXTENSION($name ,$len);  # we don't want to create three answer rules in different modes.
  712     my $out = MODES(
  713                      'TeX' => $answer_rule,
  714                      'Latex2HTML' => '\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
  715                      'HTML_tth' => '\\begin{rawhtml} '. $answer_rule.'\\end{rawhtml}',
  716                      'HTML_dpng' => '\fbox{Answer boxes cannot be placed inside typeset equations}',
  717                      'HTML'     => $answer_rule
  718                    );
  719 
  720     $out;
  721 }
  722 sub ans_box {
  723   my $row = shift;
  724   my $col =shift;
  725   $row = 5 unless $row;
  726   $col = 80 unless $col;
  727   my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME(inc_ans_rule_count());
  728   NAMED_ANS_BOX($name ,$row,$col);
  729 }
  730 
  731 #this is legacy code; use ans_checkbox instead
  732 sub checkbox {
  733   my %options = @_;
  734   qq!<INPUT TYPE="checkbox" NAME="$options{'-name'}" VALUE="$options{'-value'}">$options{'-label'}!
  735 }
  736 
  737 
  738 sub NAMED_POP_UP_LIST {
  739     my $name = shift;
  740   my @list = @_;
  741   $name = RECORD_ANS_NAME($name);   # record answer name
  742     my $answer_value = '';
  743   $answer_value = ${$inputs_ref}{$name} if defined(${$inputs_ref}{$name});
  744   my $out = "";
  745   if ($displayMode eq 'HTML' or $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' or
  746             $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng' or $displayMode eq 'HTML_img') {
  747     $out = qq!<SELECT NAME = "$name" SIZE=1> \n!;
  748     my $i;
  749     foreach ($i=0; $i< @list; $i=$i+2) {
  750       my $select_flag = ($list[$i] eq $answer_value) ? "SELECTED" : "";
  751       $out .= qq!<OPTION $select_flag VALUE ="$list[$i]" > $list[$i+1]  </OPTION>\n!;
  752     };
  753     $out .= " </SELECT>\n";
  754   } elsif ( $displayMode eq "Latex2HTML") {
  755     $out = qq! \\begin{rawhtml}<SELECT NAME = "$name" SIZE=1> \\end{rawhtml} \n !;
  756     my $i;
  757     foreach ($i=0; $i< @list; $i=$i+2) {
  758       my $select_flag = ($list[$i] eq $answer_value) ? "SELECTED" : "";
  759       $out .= qq!\\begin{rawhtml}<OPTION $select_flag VALUE ="$list[$i]" > $list[$i+1]  </OPTION>\\end{rawhtml}\n!;
  760     };
  761     $out .= " \\begin{rawhtml}</SELECT>\\end{rawhtml}\n";
  762   } elsif ( $displayMode eq "TeX") {
  763       $out .= "\\fbox{?}";
  764   }
  765 
  766 }
  767 
  768 sub pop_up_list {
  769   my @list = @_;
  770   my $name = NEW_ANS_NAME(inc_ans_rule_count());  # get new answer name
  771   NAMED_POP_UP_LIST($name, @list);
  772 }
  773 
  774 
  775 
  776 =head5  answer_matrix
  777 
  778     Usage   \[ \{   answer_matrix(rows,columns,width_of_ans_rule, @options) \} \]
  779 
  780     Creates an array of answer blanks and passes it to display_matrix which returns
  781     text which represents the matrix in TeX format used in math display mode. Answers
  782     are then passed back to whatever answer evaluators you write at the end of the problem.
  783     (note, if you have an m x n matrix, you will need mn answer evaluators, and they will be
  784     returned to the evaluaters starting in the top left hand corner and proceed to the left
  785     and then at the end moving down one row, just as you would read them.)
  786 
  787     The options are passed on to display_matrix.
  788 
  789 
  790 =cut
  791 
  792 
  793 sub answer_matrix{
  794   my $m = shift;
  795   my $n = shift;
  796   my $width = shift;
  797   my @options = @_;
  798   my @array=();
  799   for( my $i = 0; $i < $m; $i+=1)
  800   {
  801     my @row_array = ();
  802 
  803     for( my $i = 0; $i < $n; $i+=1)
  804     {
  805       push @row_array,  ans_rule($width);
  806     }
  807     my $r_row_array = \@row_array;
  808     push @array,  $r_row_array;
  809   }
  810   # display_matrix hasn't been loaded into the cache safe compartment
  811   # so we need to refer to the subroutine in this way to make
  812   # sure that main is defined correctly.
  813   my $ra_local_display_matrix=PG_restricted_eval(q!\&main::display_matrix!);
  814   &$ra_local_display_matrix( \@array, @options );
  815 
  816 }
  817 
  818 sub NAMED_ANS_ARRAY_EXTENSION{
  819 
  820   my $name = shift;
  821   my $col = shift;
  822   $col = 20 unless $col;
  823   my $answer_value = '';
  824 
  825   $answer_value = ${$inputs_ref}{$name} if    defined(${$inputs_ref}{$name});
  826   if ($answer_value =~ /\0/ ) {
  827     my @answers = split("\0", $answer_value);
  828     $answer_value = shift(@answers);
  829     $answer_value= '' unless defined($answer_value);
  830   } elsif (ref($answer_value) eq 'ARRAY') {
  831     my @answers = @{ $answer_value};
  832       $answer_value = shift(@answers);
  833         $answer_value= '' unless defined($answer_value);
  834   }
  835 
  836   $answer_value =~ tr/\\$@`//d;   ## make sure student answers can not be interpolated by e.g. EV3
  837   MODES(
  838     TeX => "\\mbox{\\parbox[t]{10pt}{\\hrulefill}}\\hrulefill\\quad ",
  839     Latex2HTML => qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME=\"$name\" VALUE = \"\">\n\\end{rawhtml}\n!,
  840     HTML => "<INPUT TYPE=TEXT SIZE=$col NAME=\"$name\" VALUE = \"$answer_value\">\n"
  841   );
  842 }
  843 
  844 sub ans_array{
  845   my $m = shift;
  846   my $n = shift;
  847   my $col = shift;
  848   $col = 20 unless $col;
  849   my $num = inc_ans_rule_count() ;
  850   my $name = NEW_ANS_ARRAY_NAME($num,0,0);
  851   my @options = @_;
  852   my @array=();
  853   my $string;
  854   my $answer_value = "";
  855 
  856   $array[0][0] =   NAMED_ANS_RULE($name,$col);
  857 
  858   for( my $i = 1; $i < $n; $i+=1)
  859   {
  860     $name = NEW_ANS_ARRAY_NAME_EXTENSION($num,0,$i);
  861     $array[0][$i] =   NAMED_ANS_ARRAY_EXTENSION($name,$col);
  862 
  863   }
  864 
  865   for( my $j = 1; $j < $m; $j+=1 ){
  866 
  867     for( my $i = 0; $i < $n; $i+=1)
  868     {
  869       $name = NEW_ANS_ARRAY_NAME_EXTENSION($num,$j,$i);
  870       $array[$j][$i] =  NAMED_ANS_ARRAY_EXTENSION($name,$col);
  871 
  872     }
  873 
  874   }
  875   my $ra_local_display_matrix=PG_restricted_eval(q!\&main::display_matrix!);
  876   &$ra_local_display_matrix( \@array, @options );
  877 
  878 }
  879 
  880 sub ans_array_extension{
  881   my $m = shift;
  882   my $n = shift;
  883   my $col = shift;
  884   $col = 20 unless $col;
  885   my $num = PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::ans_rule_count!);
  886   my @options = @_;
  887   my $name;
  888   my @array=();
  889   my $string;
  890   my $answer_value = "";
  891 
  892   for( my $j = 0; $j < $m; $j+=1 ){
  893 
  894     for( my $i = 0; $i < $n; $i+=1)
  895     {
  896       $name = NEW_ANS_ARRAY_NAME_EXTENSION($num,$j,$i);
  897       $array[$j][$i] =  NAMED_ANS_ARRAY_EXTENSION($name,$col);
  898 
  899     }
  900 
  901   }
  902   my $ra_local_display_matrix=PG_restricted_eval(q!\&main::display_matrix!);
  903   &$ra_local_display_matrix( \@array, @options );
  904 
  905 }
  906 
  907 
  908 # end answer blank macros
  909 
  910 =head2 Hints and solutions macros
  911 
  912   solution('text','text2',...);
  913   SOLUTION('text','text2',...);   # equivalent to TEXT(solution(...));
  914 
  915   hint('text', 'text2', ...);
  916   HINT('text', 'text2',...);      # equivalent to TEXT("$BR$HINT" . hint(@_) . "$BR") if hint(@_);
  917 
  918 Solution prints its concatenated input when the check box named 'ShowSol' is set and
  919 the time is after the answer date.  The check box 'ShowSol' is visible only after the
  920 answer date or when the problem is viewed by a professor.
  921 
  922 $main::envir{'displaySolutionsQ'} is set to 1 when a solution is to be displayed.
  923 
  924 Hints are shown only after the number of attempts is greater than $:showHint
  925 ($main::showHint defaults to 1) and the check box named 'ShowHint' is set. The check box
  926 'ShowHint' is visible only after the number of attempts is greater than $main::showHint.
  927 
  928 $main::envir{'displayHintsQ'} is set to 1 when a hint is to be displayed.
  929 
  930 
  931 =cut
  932 
  933 
  934 
  935 #   solution prints its input when $displaySolutionsQ is set.
  936 #   use as TEXT(solution("blah, blah");
  937 #   \$solutionExists
  938 #   is passed to processProblem which displays a "show Solution" button
  939 #   when a solution is available for viewing
  940 
  941 
  942 sub solution {
  943   my @in = @_;
  944   my $out = '';
  945   PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::solutionExists =1!);
  946   if (PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::envir{'displaySolutionsQ'}!)) {$out = join(' ',@in);}
  947     $out;
  948 }
  949 
  950 
  951 sub SOLUTION {
  952   TEXT( solution(@_)) ;
  953 }
  954 
  955 
  956 
  957 sub hint {
  958     my @in = @_;
  959   my $out = '';
  960 
  961   PG_restricted_eval(q!$main::hintExists =1;
  962                          $main::numOfAttempts = 0 unless defined($main::numOfAttempts);
  963     !);
  964 
  965   if ($displayMode eq 'TeX')   {
  966     $out = '';  # do nothing since hints are not available for download
  967   } elsif (($envir->{'displayHintsQ'}) and
  968           PG_restricted_eval(q!($main::numOfAttempts >= $main::showHint)!))
  969 
  970    ## the second test above prevents a hint being shown if a doctored form is submitted
  971 
  972   {$out = join(' ',@in);}    # show hint
  973 
  974   $out ;
  975 }
  976 
  977 
  978 sub HINT {
  979     TEXT("$BR" . hint(@_) . "$BR") if hint(@_);
  980 }
  981 
  982 
  983 
  984 # End hints and solutions macros
  985 #################################
  986 
  987 # Produces a random number between $begin and $end with increment 1.
  988 # You do not have to worry about integer or floating point types.
  989 
  990 =head2 Pseudo-random number generator
  991 
  992   Usage:
  993   random(0,5,.1)      # produces a random number between 0 and 5 in increments of .1
  994   non_zero_random(0,5,.1) # gives a non-zero random number
  995 
  996   list_random(2,3,5,6,7,8,10) # produces random value from the list
  997   list_random(2,3, (5..8),10) # does the same thing
  998 
  999   SRAND(seed)     # resets the main random generator -- use very cautiously
 1000 
 1001 
 1002 SRAND(time) will create a different problem everytime it is called.  This makes it difficult
 1003 to check the answers :-).
 1004 
 1005 SRAND($envir->{'inputs_ref'}->{'key'} ) will create a different problem for each login session.
 1006 This is probably what is desired.
 1007 
 1008 =cut
 1009 
 1010 
 1011 sub random  {
 1012   my ($begin, $end, $incr) = @_;
 1013   $PG_random_generator->random($begin,$end,$incr);
 1014 }
 1015 
 1016 
 1017 sub non_zero_random { ##gives a non-zero random number
 1018   my (@arguments)=@_;
 1019   my $a=0;
 1020   my $i=100; #safety counter
 1021   while ($a==0 && ( 0 < $i-- ) ) {
 1022     $a=random(@arguments);
 1023   }
 1024   $a;
 1025 }
 1026 
 1027 sub list_random {
 1028         my(@li) = @_;
 1029         return $li[random(1,scalar(@li))-1];
 1030 }
 1031 
 1032 sub SRAND { # resets the main random generator -- use cautiously
 1033     my $seed = shift;
 1034   $PG_random_generator -> srand($seed);
 1035 }
 1036 
 1037 # display macros
 1038 
 1039 =head2 Display Macros
 1040 
 1041 These macros produce different output depending on the display mode being used to show
 1042 the problem on the screen, or whether the problem is being converted to TeX to produce
 1043 a hard copy output.
 1044 
 1045   MODES   ( TeX =>        "Output this in TeX mode",
 1046             HTML =>       "output this in HTML mode",
 1047             HTML_tth =>   "output this in HTML_tth mode",
 1048             HTML_dpng =>   "output this in HTML_dpng mode",
 1049             Latex2HTML => "output this in Latex2HTML mode",
 1050            )
 1051 
 1052   TEX     (tex_version, html_version) #obsolete
 1053 
 1054   M3      (tex_version, latex2html_version, html_version) #obsolete
 1055 
 1056 
 1057 
 1058 =cut
 1059 
 1060 
 1061 sub TEX {
 1062   my ($tex, $html ) = @_;
 1063   MODES(TeX => $tex, HTML => $html, HTML_tth => $html, HTML_dpng => $html);
 1064 }
 1065 
 1066 
 1067 sub M3 {
 1068   my($tex,$l2h,$html) = @_;
 1069   MODES(TeX => $tex, Latex2HTML => $l2h, HTML => $html, HTML_tth => $html, HTML_dpng => $html);
 1070 }
 1071 
 1072 # This replaces M3.  You can add new modes at will to this one.
 1073 
 1074 sub MODES {
 1075   my %options = @_;
 1076   return $options{$displayMode}
 1077              if defined( $options{$displayMode} );
 1078 
 1079   # default searches.
 1080   if ($displayMode eq "Latex2HTML") {
 1081     return $options{TeX}
 1082              if defined( $options{TeX} );
 1083       return $options{HTML}
 1084              if defined( $options{HTML} );
 1085       die " ERROR in using MODES: 'HTML' and 'TeX' options not defined for 'Latex2HTML'";
 1086   }
 1087 
 1088   if ($displayMode eq "HTML_tth") {
 1089     return $options{HTML}
 1090              if defined( $options{HTML} );
 1091       die " ERROR in using MODES: 'HTML' option not defined for HTML_tth";
 1092 
 1093   }
 1094 
 1095   if ($displayMode eq "HTML_img") {
 1096     return $options{HTML_dpng} if defined $options{HTML_dpng};
 1097     return $options{HTML_tth} if defined $options{HTML_tth};
 1098     return $options{HTML}     if defined $options{HTML};
 1099     die " ERROR in using MODES: 'HTML' option not defined for HTML_img";
 1100   }
 1101 
 1102   if ($displayMode eq "HTML_dpng") {
 1103     return $options{HTML_tth}
 1104              if defined( $options{HTML_tth} );
 1105     return $options{HTML}
 1106              if defined( $options{HTML} );
 1107       die " ERROR in using MODES: 'HTML' option not defined for HTML_dpng";
 1108 
 1109   }
 1110 
 1111   # trap undefined errors
 1112   die "ERROR in defining MODES:  Can't find |$displayMode| among
 1113            available options:" . join(" ", keys(%options) )
 1114            . " file " . __FILE__ ." line " . __LINE__."\n\n";
 1115 
 1116 }
 1117 
 1118 
 1119 # end display macros
 1120 
 1121 
 1122 =head2  Display constants
 1123 
 1124   @ALPHABET       ALPHABET()      capital letter alphabet -- ALPHABET[0] = 'A'
 1125   $PAR        PAR()       paragraph character (\par or <p>)
 1126   $BR             BR()        line break character
 1127   $LQ         LQ()        left double quote
 1128   $RQ         RQ()        right double quote
 1129   $BM         BM()        begin math
 1130   $EM         EM()        end math
 1131   $BDM        BDM()       begin display math
 1132   $EDM        EDM()       end display math
 1133   $LTS        LTS()       strictly less than
 1134   $GTS        GTS()       strictly greater than
 1135   $LTE        LTE()       less than or equal
 1136   $GTE        GTE()       greater than or equal
 1137   $BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN()  begin one-column mode
 1138   $END_ONE_COLUMN   END_ONE_COLUMN()  end one-column mode
 1139   $SOL        SOLUTION_HEADING()  solution headline
 1140   $SOLUTION     SOLUTION_HEADING()  solution headline
 1141   $HINT       HINT_HEADING()    hint headline
 1142   $US         US()        underscore character
 1143   $SPACE        SPACE()       space character (tex and latex only)
 1144   $BBOLD        BBOLD()       begin bold typeface
 1145   $EBOLD        EBOLD()       end bold typeface
 1146   $BITALIC        BITALIC()       begin italic typeface
 1147   $EITALIC        EITALIC()       end italic typeface
 1148   $BCENTER        BCENTER()       begin centered environment
 1149   $ECENTER        ECENTER()       end centered environment
 1150   $HR         HR()        horizontal rule
 1151   $LBRACE       LBRACE()      left brace
 1152   $LB         LB ()       left brace
 1153   $RBRACE       RBRACE()      right brace
 1154   $RB         RB ()       right brace
 1155   $DOLLAR       DOLLAR()      a dollar sign
 1156   $PERCENT      PERCENT()     a percent sign
 1157   $CARET        CARET()       a caret sign
 1158   $PI         PI()        the number pi
 1159   $E          E()         the number e
 1160 
 1161 =cut
 1162 
 1163 
 1164 
 1165 
 1166 
 1167 # A utility variable.  Notice that "B"=$ALPHABET[1] and
 1168 # "ABCD"=@ALPHABET[0..3].
 1169 
 1170 sub ALPHABET  {
 1171   ('A'..'ZZ')[@_];
 1172 }
 1173 
 1174 ###############################################################
 1175 # Some constants which are different in tex and in HTML
 1176 # The order of arguments is TeX, Latex2HTML, HTML
 1177 # Adopted Davide Cervone's improvements to PAR, LTS, GTS, LTE, GTE, LBRACE, RBRACE, LB, RB. 7-14-03 AKP
 1178 sub PAR { MODES( TeX => '\\par ', Latex2HTML => '\\begin{rawhtml}<P>\\end{rawhtml}', HTML => '<P>'); };
 1179 sub BR { MODES( TeX => '\\par\\noindent ', Latex2HTML => '\\begin{rawhtml}<BR>\\end{rawhtml}', HTML => '<BR>'); };
 1180 # Alternate definition of BR which is slightly more flexible and gives more white space in printed output
 1181 # which looks better but kills more trees.
 1182 #sub BR { MODES( TeX => '\\\\', Latex2HTML => '\\begin{rawhtml}<BR>\\end{rawhtml}', HTML => '<BR>'); };
 1183 sub LQ { MODES( TeX => "``", Latex2HTML =>   '"',  HTML =>  '&quot;' ); };
 1184 sub RQ { MODES( TeX => "''", Latex2HTML =>   '"',   HTML =>  '&quot;' ); };
 1185 sub BM { MODES(TeX => '\\(', Latex2HTML => '\\(', HTML =>  ''); };  # begin math mode
 1186 sub EM { MODES(TeX => '\\)', Latex2HTML => '\\)', HTML => ''); };  # end math mode
 1187 sub BDM { MODES(TeX => '\\[', Latex2HTML =>   '\\[', HTML =>   '<P ALIGN=CENTER>'); };  #begin displayMath mode
 1188 sub EDM { MODES(TeX => '\\]',  Latex2HTML =>  '\\]', HTML => '</P>'); };              #end displayMath mode
 1189 sub LTS { MODES(TeX => '<', Latex2HTML => '\\lt ', HTML => '&lt;', HTML_tth => '<' ); };
 1190 sub GTS { MODES(TeX => '>', Latex2HTML => '\\gt ', HTML => '&gt;', HTML_tth => '>' ); };
 1191 sub LTE { MODES(TeX => '\\le ', Latex2HTML => '\\le ', HTML => '<U>&lt;</U>', HTML_tth => '\\le ' ); };
 1192 sub GTE { MODES(TeX => '\\ge ', Latex2HTML => '\\ge ', HTML => '<U>&gt;</U>', HTML_tth => '\\ge ' ); };
 1193 sub BEGIN_ONE_COLUMN { MODES(TeX => " \\end{multicols}\n",  Latex2HTML => " ", HTML =>   " "); };
 1194 sub END_ONE_COLUMN { MODES(TeX =>
 1195               " \\begin{multicols}{2}\n\\columnwidth=\\linewidth\n",
 1196                             Latex2HTML => ' ', HTML => ' ');
 1197 
 1198 };
 1199 sub SOLUTION_HEADING { MODES( TeX => '\\par {\\bf Solution:}',
 1200                  Latex2HTML => '\\par {\\bf Solution:}',
 1201                HTML =>  '<P><B>Solution:</B>');
 1202               };
 1203 sub HINT_HEADING { MODES( TeX => "\\par {\\bf Hint:}", Latex2HTML => "\\par {\\bf Hint:}", HTML => "<P><B>Hint:</B>"); };
 1204 sub US { MODES(TeX => '\\_', Latex2HTML => '\\_', HTML => '_');};  # underscore, e.g. file${US}name
 1205 sub SPACE { MODES(TeX => '\\ ',  Latex2HTML => '\\ ', HTML => '&nbsp;');};  # force a space in latex, doesn't force extra space in html
 1206 sub BBOLD { MODES(TeX => '{\\bf ',  Latex2HTML => '{\\bf ', HTML => '<B>'); };
 1207 sub EBOLD { MODES( TeX => '}', Latex2HTML =>  '}',HTML =>  '</B>'); };
 1208 sub BITALIC { MODES(TeX => '{\\it ',  Latex2HTML => '{\\it ', HTML => '<I>'); };
 1209 sub EITALIC { MODES(TeX => '} ',  Latex2HTML => '} ', HTML => '</I>'); };
 1210 sub BCENTER { MODES(TeX => '\\begin{center} ',  Latex2HTML => ' \\begin{rawhtml} <div align="center"> \\end{rawhtml} ', HTML => '<div align="center">'); };
 1211 sub ECENTER { MODES(TeX => '\\end{center} ',  Latex2HTML => ' \\begin{rawhtml} </div> \\end{rawhtml} ', HTML => '</div>'); };
 1212 sub HR { MODES(TeX => '\\par\\hrulefill\\par ', Latex2HTML => '\\begin{rawhtml} <HR> \\end{rawhtml}', HTML =>  '<HR>'); };
 1213 sub LBRACE { MODES( TeX => '\{', Latex2HTML =>   '\\lbrace',  HTML =>  '{' , HTML_tth=> '\\lbrace' ); };
 1214 sub RBRACE { MODES( TeX => '\}', Latex2HTML =>   '\\rbrace',  HTML =>  '}' , HTML_tth=> '\\rbrace',); };
 1215 sub LB { MODES( TeX => '\{', Latex2HTML =>   '\\lbrace',  HTML =>  '{' , HTML_tth=> '\\lbrace' ); };
 1216 sub RB { MODES( TeX => '\}', Latex2HTML =>   '\\rbrace',  HTML =>  '}' , HTML_tth=> '\\rbrace',); };
 1217 sub DOLLAR { MODES( TeX => '\\$', Latex2HTML => '\\$', HTML => '$' ); };
 1218 sub PERCENT { MODES( TeX => '\\%', Latex2HTML => '\\%', HTML => '%' ); };
 1219 sub CARET { MODES( TeX => '\\verb+^+', Latex2HTML => '\\verb+^+', HTML => '^' ); };
 1220 sub PI {4*atan2(1,1);};
 1221 sub E {exp(1);};
 1222 
 1223 ###############################################################
 1224 ## Evaluation macros
 1225 
 1226 
 1227 =head2 TEXT macros
 1228 
 1229   Usage:
 1230     TEXT(@text);
 1231 
 1232 This is the simplest way to print text from a problem.  The strings in the array C<@text> are concatenated
 1233 with spaces between them and printed out in the text of the problem.  The text is not processed in any other way.
 1234 C<TEXT> is defined in PG.pl.
 1235 
 1236   Usage:
 1237     BEGIN_TEXT
 1238       text.....
 1239     END_TEXT
 1240 
 1241 This is the most common way to enter text into the problem.  All of the text between BEGIN_TEXT and END_TEXT
 1242 is processed by the C<EV3> macro described below and then printed using the C<TEXT> command.  The two key words
 1243 must appear on lines by themselves.  The preprocessing that makes this construction work is done in F<PGtranslator.pm>.
 1244 See C<EV3> below for details on the processing.
 1245 
 1246 
 1247 =cut
 1248 
 1249 =head2 Evaluation macros
 1250 
 1251 =head3 EV3
 1252 
 1253         TEXT(EV3("This is a formulat \( \int_0^5 x^2 \, dx \) ");
 1254         TEXT(EV3(@text));
 1255 
 1256     TEXT(EV3(<<'END_TEXT'));
 1257       text stuff...
 1258     END_TEXT
 1259 
 1260 
 1261 The BEGIN_TEXT/END_TEXT construction is translated into the construction above by PGtranslator.pm.  END_TEXT must appear
 1262 on a line by itself and be left justified.  (The << construction is known as a "here document" in UNIX and in PERL.)
 1263 
 1264 The single quotes around END_TEXT mean that no automatic interpolation of variables takes place in the text.
 1265 Using EV3 with strings which have been evaluated by double quotes may lead to unexpected results.
 1266 
 1267 
 1268 The evaluation macro E3 first evaluates perl code inside the braces:  C<\{  code \}>.
 1269 Any perl statment can be put inside the braces.  The
 1270 result of the evaluation (i.e. the last statement evaluated) replaces the C<\{ code \}> construction.
 1271 
 1272 Next interpolation of all variables (e.g. C<$var or @array> ) is performed.
 1273 
 1274 Then mathematical formulas in TeX are evaluated within the
 1275 C<\(  tex math mode \)> and
 1276 C<\[ tex display math mode \] >
 1277 constructions, in that order:
 1278 
 1279 =head3 FEQ
 1280 
 1281   FEQ($string);   # processes and outputs the string
 1282 
 1283 
 1284 The mathematical formulas are run through the macro C<FEQ> (Format EQuations) which performs
 1285 several substitutions (see below).
 1286 In C<HTML_tth> mode the resulting code is processed by tth to obtain an HTML version
 1287 of the formula. (In the future processing by WebEQ may be added here as another option.)
 1288 The Latex2HTML mode does nothing
 1289 at this stage; it creates the entire problem before running it through
 1290 TeX and creating the GIF images of the equations.
 1291 
 1292 The resulting string is output (and usually fed into TEXT to be printed in the problem).
 1293 
 1294   Usage:
 1295 
 1296     $string2 = FEQ($string1);
 1297 
 1298 This is a filter which is used to format equations by C<EV2> and C<EV3>, but can also be used on its own.  It is best
 1299 understood with an example.
 1300 
 1301     $string1 = "${a}x^2 + ${b}x + {$c:%.1f}"; $a = 3;, $b = -2; $c = -7.345;
 1302 
 1303 when interpolated becomes:
 1304 
 1305     $string1 = '3x^2 + -2x + {-7.345:%0.1f}
 1306 
 1307 FEQ first changes the number of decimal places displayed, so that the last term becomes -7.3 Then it removes the
 1308 extraneous plus and minus signs, so that the final result is what you want:
 1309 
 1310     $string2 = '3x^2 - 2x -7.3';
 1311 
 1312 (The %0.1f construction
 1313 is the same formatting convention used by Perl and nearly identical to the one used by the C printf statement. Some common
 1314 usage:  %0.3f 3 decimal places, fixed notation; %0.3e 3 significant figures exponential notation; %0.3g uses either fixed
 1315 or exponential notation depending on the size of the number.)
 1316 
 1317 Two additional legacy formatting constructions are also supported:
 1318 
 1319 C<?{$c:%0.3f} > will give a number with 3 decimal places and a negative
 1320 sign if the number is negative, no sign if the number is positive.
 1321 
 1322 C<!{$c:%0.3f}> determines the sign and prints it
 1323 whether the number is positive or negative.
 1324 
 1325 =head3 EV2
 1326 
 1327     TEXT(EV2(@text));
 1328 
 1329     TEXT(EV2(<<END_OF_TEXT));
 1330       text stuff...
 1331     END_OF_TEXT
 1332 
 1333 This is a precursor to EV3.  In this case the constants are interpolated first, before the evaluation of the \{ ...code...\}
 1334 construct. This can lead to unexpected results.  For example C<\{ join(" ", @text) \}> with C<@text = ("Hello","World");> becomes,
 1335 after interpolation, C<\{ join(" ",Hello World) \}> which then causes an error when evaluated because Hello is a bare word.
 1336 C<EV2> can still be useful if you allow for this, and in particular it works on double quoted strings, which lead to
 1337 unexpected results with C<EV3>. Using single quoted strings with C<EV2> may lead to unexpected results.
 1338 
 1339 The unexpected results have to do with the number of times backslashed constructions have to be escaped. It is quite messy.  For
 1340 more details get a good Perl book and then read the code. :-)
 1341 
 1342 
 1343 
 1344 
 1345 =cut
 1346 
 1347 
 1348 sub ev_substring {
 1349     my $string      = shift;
 1350   my $start_delim = shift;
 1351   my $end_delim   = shift;
 1352   my $actionRef   = shift;
 1353   my ($eval_out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report)=();
 1354     my $out = "";
 1355                 #
 1356                 #  DPVC -- 2001/12/07
 1357                 #     original "while ($string)" fails to process the string "0" correctly
 1358                 #
 1359     while ($string ne "") {
 1360                 #
 1361                 #  end DPVC
 1362                 #
 1363         if ($string =~ /\Q$start_delim\E/s) {
 1364        #print "$start_delim $end_delim evaluating_substring=$string<BR>";
 1365         $string =~ s/^(.*?)\Q$start_delim\E//s;  # get string up to next \{ ---treats string as a single line, ignoring returns
 1366         $out .= $1;
 1367        #print "$start_delim $end_delim substring_out=$out<BR>";
 1368         $string =~ s/^(.*?)\Q$end_delim\E//s;  # get perl code up to \} ---treats string as a single line,  ignoring returns
 1369            #print "$start_delim $end_delim evaluate_string=$1<BR>";
 1370         ($eval_out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report) = &$actionRef($1);
 1371         $eval_out = "$start_delim $eval_out $end_delim" if $PG_full_error_report;
 1372         $out = $out . $eval_out;
 1373        #print "$start_delim $end_delim new substring_out=$out<BR><p><BR>";
 1374         $out .="$PAR ERROR $0 in ev_substring, PGbasicmacros.pl:$PAR <PRE>  $@ </PRE>$PAR" if $@;
 1375         }
 1376       else {
 1377         $out .= $string;  # flush the last part of the string
 1378         last;
 1379         }
 1380 
 1381       }
 1382   $out;
 1383 }
 1384 sub  safe_ev {
 1385     my ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report) = &old_safe_ev;   # process input by old_safe_ev first
 1386     $out =~s/\\/\\\\/g;   # protect any new backslashes introduced.
 1387   ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report)
 1388 }
 1389 
 1390 sub  old_safe_ev {
 1391     my $in = shift;
 1392     my   ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report) = PG_restricted_eval("$in;");
 1393     # the addition of the ; seems to provide better error reporting
 1394     if ($PG_eval_errors) {
 1395       my @errorLines = split("\n",$PG_eval_errors);
 1396     #$out = "<PRE>$PAR % ERROR in $0:old_safe_ev, PGbasicmacros.pl: $PAR % There is an error occuring inside evaluation brackets \\{ ...code... \\} $BR % somewhere in an EV2 or EV3 or BEGIN_TEXT block. $BR % Code evaluated:$BR $in $BR % $BR % $errorLines[0]\n % $errorLines[1]$BR % $BR % $BR </PRE> ";
 1397     warn " ERROR in old_safe_ev, PGbasicmacros.pl: <PRE>
 1398      ## There is an error occuring inside evaluation brackets \\{ ...code... \\}
 1399      ## somewhere in an EV2 or EV3 or BEGIN_TEXT block.
 1400      ## Code evaluated:
 1401      ## $in
 1402      ##" .join("\n     ", @errorLines). "
 1403      ##</PRE>$BR
 1404      ";
 1405      $out ="$PAR $BBOLD  $in $EBOLD $PAR";
 1406 
 1407 
 1408   }
 1409 
 1410   ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report);
 1411 }
 1412 
 1413 sub FEQ   {    # Format EQuations
 1414   my $in = shift;
 1415    # formatting numbers -- the ?{} and !{} constructions
 1416   $in =~s/\?\s*\{([.\-\$\w\d]+):?([%.\da-z]*)\}/${ \( &sspf($1,$2) )}/g;
 1417   $in =~s/\!\s*\{([.\-\$\w\d]+):?([%.\da-z]*)\}/${ \( &spf($1,$2) )}/g;
 1418 
 1419   # more formatting numbers -- {number:format} constructions
 1420   $in =~ s/\{(\s*[\+\-\d\.]+[eE]*[\+\-]*\d*):(\%\d*.\d*\w)}/${ \( &spf($1,$2) )}/g;
 1421   $in =~ s/\+\s*\-/ - /g;
 1422   $in =~ s/\-\s*\+/ - /g;
 1423   $in =~ s/\+\s*\+/ + /g;
 1424   $in =~ s/\-\s*\-/ + /g;
 1425   $in;
 1426 }
 1427 
 1428 #sub math_ev3 {
 1429 # my $in = shift; #print "in=$in<BR>";
 1430 # my ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report);
 1431 # $in = FEQ($in);
 1432 # $in =~ s/%/\\%/g;   #  % causes trouble in TeX and HTML_tth it usually (always?) indicates an error, not comment
 1433 # return("$BM $in $EM") unless ($displayMode eq 'HTML_tth');
 1434 # $in = "\\(" . $in . "\\)";
 1435 # $out = tth($in);
 1436 # ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report);
 1437 #
 1438 #}
 1439 #
 1440 #sub display_math_ev3 {
 1441 # my $in = shift; #print "in=$in<BR>";
 1442 # my ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report);
 1443 # $in = FEQ($in);
 1444 # $in =~ s/%/\\%/g;
 1445 # return("$main::BDM $in $main::EDM") unless $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' ;
 1446 # $in = "\\[" . $in . "\\]";
 1447 # $out =tth($in);
 1448 # ($out,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_error_report);
 1449 #}
 1450 
 1451 sub math_ev3 {
 1452   my $in = shift;
 1453   return general_math_ev3($in, "inline");
 1454 }
 1455 
 1456 sub display_math_ev3 {
 1457   my $in = shift;
 1458   return general_math_ev3($in, "display");
 1459 }
 1460 
 1461 sub general_math_ev3 {
 1462   my $in = shift;
 1463   my $mode = shift || "inline";
 1464 
 1465   $in = FEQ($in); # Format EQuations
 1466   $in =~ s/%/\\%/g; # avoid % becoming TeX comments
 1467 
 1468   ## remove leading and trailing spaces so that HTML mode will
 1469   ## not include unwanted spaces as per Davide Cervone.
 1470   $in =~ s/^\s+//;
 1471   $in =~ s/\s+$//;
 1472   ## If it ends with a backslash, there should be another space
 1473   ## at the end
 1474   if($in =~ /\\$/) { $in .= ' ';}
 1475 
 1476   # some modes want the delimiters, some don't
 1477   my $in_delim = $mode eq "inline"
 1478     ? "\\($in\\)"
 1479     : "\\[$in\\]";
 1480 
 1481   my $out;
 1482   if($displayMode eq "HTML_tth") {
 1483     $out = tth($in_delim);
 1484     ## remove leading and trailing spaces as per Davide Cervone.
 1485     $in =~ s/^\s+//;
 1486     $in =~ s/\s+$//;
 1487   } elsif ($displayMode eq "HTML_dpng") {
 1488     # for jj's version of ImageGenerator
 1489     $out = $envir->{'imagegen'}->add($in_delim);
 1490     # for my version of ImageGenerator
 1491     #$out = $envir->{'imagegen'}->add($in, $mode);
 1492   } elsif ($displayMode eq "HTML_img") {
 1493     $out = math2img($in, $mode);
 1494   } else {
 1495     $out = "\\($in\\)" if $mode eq "inline";
 1496     $out = "\\[$in\\]" if $mode eq "display";
 1497   }
 1498   return $out;
 1499 }
 1500 
 1501 sub EV2 {
 1502   my $string = join(" ",@_);
 1503   # evaluate code inside of \{  \}  (no nesting allowed)
 1504     $string = ev_substring($string,"\\{","\\}",\&old_safe_ev);
 1505     $string = ev_substring($string,"\\<","\\>",\&old_safe_ev);
 1506   $string = ev_substring($string,"\\(","\\)",\&math_ev3);
 1507   $string = ev_substring($string,"\\[","\\]",\&display_math_ev3);
 1508   # macros for displaying math
 1509   $string =~ s/\\\(/$BM/g;
 1510   $string =~ s/\\\)/$EM/g;
 1511   $string =~ s/\\\[/$BDM/g;
 1512   $string =~ s/\\\]/$EDM/g;
 1513   $string;
 1514 }
 1515 
 1516 sub EV3{
 1517   my $string = join(" ",@_);
 1518   # evaluate code inside of \{  \}  (no nesting allowed)
 1519     $string = ev_substring($string,"\\\\{","\\\\}",\&safe_ev);  # handles \{ \} in single quoted strings of PG files
 1520   # interpolate variables
 1521   my ($evaluated_string,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_errors) = PG_restricted_eval("<<END_OF_EVALUATION_STRING\n$string\nEND_OF_EVALUATION_STRING\n");
 1522   if ($PG_eval_errors) {
 1523       my @errorLines = split("\n",$PG_eval_errors);
 1524       $string =~ s/</&lt;/g; $string =~ s/>/&gt;/g;
 1525     $evaluated_string = "<PRE>$PAR % ERROR in $0:EV3, PGbasicmacros.pl: $PAR % There is an error occuring in the following code:$BR $string $BR % $BR % $errorLines[0]\n % $errorLines[1]$BR % $BR % $BR </PRE> ";
 1526     $@="";
 1527   }
 1528   $string = $evaluated_string;
 1529   $string = ev_substring($string,"\\(","\\)",\&math_ev3);
 1530     $string = ev_substring($string,"\\[","\\]",\&display_math_ev3);
 1531   $string;
 1532 }
 1533 
 1534 sub EV4{
 1535     if ($displayMode eq "HTML_dpng") {
 1536         my $string = join(" ",@_);
 1537         my ($evaluated_string,$PG_eval_errors,$PG_full_errors) = PG_restricted_eval("<<END_OF_EVALUATION_STRING\n$string\nEND_OF_EVALUATION_STRING\n");
 1538         if ($PG_eval_errors) {
 1539             my @errorLines = split("\n",$PG_eval_errors);
 1540             $string =~ s/</&lt;/g; $string =~ s/>/&gt;/g;
 1541             $evaluated_string = "<PRE>$PAR % ERROR in $0:EV3, PGbasicmacros.pl:".
 1542       "$PAR % There is an error occuring in the following code:$BR ".
 1543       "$string $BR % $BR % $errorLines[0]\n % $errorLines[1]$BR ".
 1544       "% $BR % $BR </PRE> ";
 1545         }
 1546         $string = $evaluated_string;
 1547         $string = $envir{'imagegen'}->add($string);
 1548         $string;
 1549     } else {
 1550       EV3(@_);
 1551     }
 1552 }
 1553 
 1554 
 1555 =head2 Formatting macros
 1556 
 1557   beginproblem()  # generates text listing number and the point value of
 1558                   # the problem. It will also print the file name containing
 1559                   # the problem for users listed in the PRINT_FILE_NAMES_FOR PG_environment
 1560                   # variable.
 1561   OL(@array)      # formats the array as an Ordered List ( <OL> </OL> ) enumerated by letters.
 1562 
 1563   htmlLink($url, $text)
 1564                   # Places a reference to the URL with the specified text in the problem.
 1565                   # A common usage is \{ htmlLink(alias('prob1_help.html') \}, 'for help')
 1566                   # where alias finds the full address of the prob1_help.html file in the same directory
 1567                   # as the problem file
 1568   appletLink($url, $parameters)
 1569                   # For example
 1570                   # appletLink(q!  archive="http: //webwork.math.rochester.edu/gage/xFunctions/xFunctions.zip"
 1571                                   code="xFunctionsLauncher.class"  width=100 height=14!,
 1572                   " parameter text goes here")
 1573                   # will link to xFunctions.
 1574 
 1575   low level:
 1576 
 1577   spf($number, $format)   # prints the number with the given format
 1578   sspf($number, $format)  # prints the number with the given format, always including a sign.
 1579   protect_underbar($string) # protects the underbar (class_name) in strings which may have to pass through TeX.
 1580 
 1581 =cut
 1582 
 1583 sub beginproblem {
 1584   my $out = "";
 1585   my $problemValue = $envir->{problemValue};
 1586   my $fileName     = $envir->{fileName};
 1587   my $probNum      = $envir->{probNum};
 1588     my $TeXFileName = protect_underbar($envir->{fileName});
 1589     my $l2hFileName = protect_underbar($envir->{fileName});
 1590   my %inlist;
 1591   my $points ='pts';
 1592 
 1593   $points = 'pt' if $problemValue == 1;
 1594   ##    Prepare header for the problem
 1595   grep($inlist{$_}++,@{ $envir->{'PRINT_FILE_NAMES_FOR'} });
 1596   if ( defined($inlist{$envir->{studentLogin}}) and ($inlist{$envir->{studentLogin}} > 0) ) {
 1597     $out = &M3("\n\n\\medskip\\hrule\\smallskip\\par{\\bf ${probNum}.{\\footnotesize ($problemValue $points) $TeXFileName}}\\newline ",
 1598     " \\begin{rawhtml} ($problemValue $points) <B>$l2hFileName</B><BR>\\end{rawhtml}",
 1599      "($problemValue $points) <B>$fileName</B><BR>"
 1600        ) if ($problemValue ne "");
 1601   } else {
 1602     $out = &M3("\n\n\\smallskip\\hrule\\smallskip\\par{\\bf ${probNum}.}($problemValue $points) ",
 1603     "($problemValue $points) ",
 1604      "($problemValue $points) "
 1605        ) if ($problemValue ne "");
 1606   }
 1607   $out;
 1608 
 1609 }
 1610 
 1611 # kludge to clean up path names
 1612             ## allow underscore character in set and section names and also allows line breaks at /
 1613 sub protect_underbar {
 1614     my $in = shift;
 1615     if ($displayMode eq 'TeX')  {
 1616 
 1617         $in =~ s|_|\\\_|g;
 1618         $in =~ s|/|\\\-/|g;  # allows an optional hyphenation of the path (in tex)
 1619     }
 1620     $in;
 1621 }
 1622 
 1623 
 1624 # An example of a macro which prints out a list (with letters)
 1625 sub OL {
 1626   my(@array) = @_;
 1627   my $i = 0;
 1628   my  $out=   &M3(
 1629           "\\begin{enumerate}\n",
 1630           " \\begin{rawhtml} <OL TYPE=\"A\" VALUE=\"1\"> \\end{rawhtml} ",
 1631           "<OL TYPE=\"A\" VALUE=\"1\">\n"
 1632           ) ;
 1633   my $elem;
 1634   foreach $elem (@array) {
 1635                 $out .= MODES(
 1636                         TeX=>   "\\item[$ALPHABET[$i].] $elem\n",
 1637                         Latex2HTML=>    " \\begin{rawhtml} <LI> \\end{rawhtml} $elem  ",
 1638                         HTML=>  "<LI> $elem\n",
 1639                         HTML_dpng=>     "<LI> $elem <br /> <br /> \n"
 1640                                         );
 1641     $i++;
 1642   }
 1643   $out .= &M3(
 1644         "\\end{enumerate}\n",
 1645         " \\begin{rawhtml} </OL>\n \\end{rawhtml} ",
 1646         "</OL>\n"
 1647         ) ;
 1648 }
 1649 
 1650 sub htmlLink {
 1651   my $url = shift;
 1652   my $text = shift;
 1653   my $options = shift;
 1654   $options = "" unless defined($options);
 1655   return "$BBOLD\[ broken link:  $text \] $EBOLD" unless defined($url);
 1656   M3( "{\\bf \\underline{$text}  }",
 1657       "\\begin{rawhtml} <A HREF=\"$url\" $options> $text </A>\\end{rawhtml}",
 1658       "<A HREF=\"$url\" $options> $text </A>"
 1659       );
 1660 }
 1661 
 1662 sub appletLink {
 1663   my $url = shift;
 1664   my $options = shift;
 1665   $options = "" unless defined($options);
 1666   M3( "{\\bf \\underline{APPLET}  }",
 1667       "\\begin{rawhtml} <APPLET $url> $options </APPLET>\\end{rawhtml}",
 1668       "<APPLET $url> $options </APPLET>"
 1669       );
 1670 }
 1671 sub spf {
 1672   my($number,$format) = @_;  # attention, the order of format and number are reversed
 1673   $format = "%4.3g" unless $format;   # default value for format
 1674   sprintf($format, $number);
 1675   }
 1676 sub sspf {
 1677   my($number,$format) = @_;  # attention, the order of format and number are reversed
 1678   $format = "%4.3g" unless $format;   # default value for format
 1679   my $sign = $number>=0 ? " + " : " - ";
 1680   $number = $number>=0 ? $number : -$number;
 1681   $sign .sprintf($format, $number);
 1682   }
 1683 
 1684 =head2  Sorting and other list macros
 1685 
 1686 
 1687 
 1688   Usage:
 1689   lex_sort(@list);   # outputs list in lexigraphic (alphabetical) order
 1690   num_sort(@list);   # outputs list in numerical order
 1691   uniq( @list);      # outputs a list with no duplicates.  Order is unspecified.
 1692 
 1693   PGsort( \&sort_subroutine, @list);
 1694   # &sort_subroutine defines order. It's output must be 1 or 0 (true or false)
 1695 
 1696 =cut
 1697 
 1698 #  uniq gives unique elements of a list:
 1699  sub uniq {
 1700    my (@in) =@_;
 1701    my %temp = ();
 1702    while (@in) {
 1703           $temp{shift(@in)}++;
 1704       }
 1705    my @out =  keys %temp;  # sort is causing trouble with Safe.??
 1706    @out;
 1707 }
 1708 
 1709 sub lex_sort {
 1710   PGsort sub {$_[0] lt $_[1]}, @_;
 1711 }
 1712 sub num_sort {
 1713   PGsort sub {$_[0] < $_[1]}, @_;
 1714 }
 1715 
 1716 
 1717 =head2 Macros for handling tables
 1718 
 1719   Usage:
 1720   begintable( number_of_columns_in_table)
 1721   row(@dataelements)
 1722   endtable()
 1723 
 1724 Example of useage:
 1725 
 1726   BEGIN_TEXT
 1727     This problem tests calculating new functions from old ones:$BR
 1728     From the table below calculate the quantities asked for:$BR
 1729     \{begintable(scalar(@firstrow)+1)\}
 1730     \{row(" \(x\) ",@firstrow)\}
 1731     \{row(" \(f(x)\) ", @secondrow)\}
 1732     \{row(" \(g(x)\) ", @thirdrow)\}
 1733     \{row(" \(f'(x)\) ", @fourthrow)\}
 1734     \{row(" \(g'(x)\) ", @fifthrow)\}
 1735     \{endtable()\}
 1736 
 1737    (The arrays contain numbers which are placed in the table.)
 1738 
 1739   END_TEXT
 1740 
 1741 =cut
 1742 
 1743 sub begintable {
 1744   my ($number)=shift;   #number of columns in table
 1745   my %options = @_;
 1746   warn "begintable(cols) requires a number indicating the number of columns" unless defined($number);
 1747   my $out = "";
 1748   if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
 1749     $out .= "\n\\par\\smallskip\\begin{center}\\begin{tabular}{"  .  "|c" x $number .  "|} \\hline\n";
 1750     }
 1751   elsif ($displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML') {
 1752     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} <TABLE , BORDER=1>\n\\end{rawhtml}";
 1753     }
 1754   elsif ($displayMode eq 'HTML' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_img') {
 1755     $out .= "<TABLE BORDER=1>\n"
 1756   }
 1757   else {
 1758     $out = "Error: PGbasicmacros: begintable: Unknown displayMode: $displayMode.\n";
 1759     }
 1760   $out;
 1761   }
 1762 
 1763 sub endtable {
 1764   my $out = "";
 1765   if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
 1766     $out .= "\n\\end {tabular}\\end{center}\\par\\smallskip\n";
 1767     }
 1768   elsif ($displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML') {
 1769     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} </TABLE >\n\\end{rawhtml}";
 1770     }
 1771   elsif ($displayMode eq 'HTML' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng' ||$displayMode eq 'HTML_img') {
 1772     $out .= "</TABLE>\n";
 1773     }
 1774   else {
 1775     $out = "Error: PGbasicmacros: endtable: Unknown displayMode: $displayMode.\n";
 1776     }
 1777   $out;
 1778   }
 1779 
 1780 
 1781 sub row {
 1782   my @elements = @_;
 1783   my $out = "";
 1784   if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
 1785     while (@elements) {
 1786       $out .= shift(@elements) . " &";
 1787       }
 1788      chop($out); # remove last &
 1789      $out .= "\\\\ \\hline \n";
 1790      # carriage returns must be added manually for tex
 1791     }
 1792   elsif ($displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML') {
 1793     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml}\n<TR>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n";
 1794     while (@elements) {
 1795       $out .= " \n\\begin{rawhtml}\n<TD> \n\\end{rawhtml}\n" . shift(@elements) . " \n\\begin{rawhtml}\n</TD> \n\\end{rawhtml}\n";
 1796       }
 1797     $out .= " \n\\begin{rawhtml}\n</TR> \n\\end{rawhtml}\n";
 1798   }
 1799   elsif ($displayMode eq 'HTML' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng'||$displayMode eq 'HTML_img') {
 1800     $out .= "<TR>\n";
 1801     while (@elements) {
 1802       $out .= "<TD>" . shift(@elements) . "</TD>";
 1803       }
 1804     $out .= "\n</TR>\n";
 1805   }
 1806   else {
 1807     $out = "Error: PGbasicmacros: row: Unknown displayMode: $displayMode.\n";
 1808     }
 1809   $out;
 1810 }
 1811 
 1812 =head2 Macros for displaying static images
 1813 
 1814   Usage:
 1815   $string = image($image, width => 100, height => 100, tex_size => 800)
 1816   $string = image([$image1, $image2], width => 100, height => 100, tex_size => 800)
 1817   $string = caption($string);
 1818   $string = imageRow([$image1, $image2 ], [$caption1, $caption2]);
 1819            # produces a complete table with rows of pictures.
 1820 
 1821 
 1822 =cut
 1823 
 1824 #   More advanced macros
 1825 sub image {
 1826   my $image_ref  = shift;
 1827   my @opt = @_;
 1828   unless (scalar(@opt) % 2 == 0 ) {
 1829     warn "ERROR in image macro.  A list of macros must be inclosed in square brackets.";
 1830   }
 1831   my %in_options = @opt;
 1832   my %known_options = (
 1833     width    => 100,
 1834     height   => 100,
 1835     tex_size => 800,
 1836   );
 1837   # handle options
 1838   my %out_options = %known_options;
 1839   foreach my $opt_name (keys %in_options) {
 1840     if ( exists( $known_options{$opt_name} ) ) {
 1841       $out_options{$opt_name} = $in_options{$opt_name} if exists( $in_options{$opt_name} ) ;
 1842     } else {
 1843       die "Option $opt_name not defined for image. " .
 1844           "Default options are:<BR> ", display_options2(%known_options);
 1845     }
 1846   }
 1847   my $width       = $out_options{width};
 1848   my $height      = $out_options{height};
 1849   my $tex_size    = $out_options{tex_size};
 1850   my $width_ratio = $tex_size*(.001);
 1851   my @image_list  = ();
 1852 
 1853   if (ref($image_ref) =~ /ARRAY/ ) {
 1854     @image_list = @{$image_ref};
 1855   } else {
 1856     push(@image_list,$image_ref);
 1857   }
 1858 
 1859   my @output_list = ();
 1860     while(@image_list) {
 1861     my $imageURL = alias(shift @image_list);
 1862     my $out="";
 1863 
 1864     if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
 1865       my $imagePath = $imageURL; # in TeX mode, alias gives us a path, not a URL
 1866       if (defined $envir->{texDisposition} and $envir->{texDisposition} eq "pdf") {
 1867         # We're going to create PDF files with our TeX (using pdflatex), so
 1868         # alias should have given us the path to a PNG image. What we need
 1869         # to do is find out the dimmensions of this image, since pdflatex
 1870         # is too dumb to live.
 1871 
 1872         #my ($height, $width) = getImageDimmensions($imagePath);
 1873         ##warn "&image: $imagePath $height $width\n";
 1874         #unless ($height and $width) {
 1875         # warn "Couldn't get the dimmensions of image $imagePath.\n"
 1876         #}
 1877         #$out = "\\includegraphics[bb=0 0 $height $width,width=$width_ratio\\linewidth]{$imagePath}\n";
 1878         $out = "\\includegraphics[width=$width_ratio\\linewidth]{$imagePath}\n";
 1879       } else {
 1880         # Since we're not creating PDF files, alias should have given us the
 1881         # path to an EPS file. latex can get its dimmensions no problem!
 1882 
 1883         $out = "\\includegraphics[width=$width_ratio\\linewidth]{$imagePath}\n";
 1884       }
 1885     } elsif ($displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML') {
 1886       $out = qq!\\begin{rawhtml}\n<A HREF= "$imageURL" TARGET="ZOOM"><IMG SRC="$imageURL"  WIDTH="$width" HEIGHT="$height"></A>\n
 1887       \\end{rawhtml}\n !
 1888     } elsif ($displayMode eq 'HTML' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_img') {
 1889       $out = qq!<A HREF= "$imageURL" TARGET="ZOOM"><IMG SRC="$imageURL"  WIDTH="$width" HEIGHT="$height"></A>
 1890       !
 1891     } else {
 1892       $out = "Error: PGbasicmacros: image: Unknown displayMode: $displayMode.\n";
 1893     }
 1894     push(@output_list, $out);
 1895   }
 1896   return wantarray ? @output_list : $output_list[0];
 1897 }
 1898 
 1899 # This is legacy code.
 1900 sub images {
 1901   my @in = @_;
 1902   my @outlist = ();
 1903   while (@in) {
 1904      push(@outlist,&image( shift(@in) ) );
 1905    }
 1906   @outlist;
 1907 }
 1908 
 1909 
 1910 sub caption {
 1911   my ($out) = @_;
 1912   $out = " $out \n" if $displayMode eq 'TeX';
 1913   $out = " $out  " if $displayMode eq 'HTML';
 1914   $out = " $out  " if $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth';
 1915   $out = " $out  " if $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng';
 1916   $out = " $out  " if $displayMode eq 'HTML_img';
 1917   $out = " $out  " if $displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML';
 1918     $out;
 1919 }
 1920 
 1921 sub captions {
 1922   my @in = @_;
 1923   my @outlist = ();
 1924   while (@in) {
 1925      push(@outlist,&caption( shift(@in) ) );
 1926   }
 1927   @outlist;
 1928 }
 1929 
 1930 sub imageRow {
 1931 
 1932   my $pImages = shift;
 1933   my $pCaptions=shift;
 1934   my $out = "";
 1935   my @images = @$pImages;
 1936   my @captions = @$pCaptions;
 1937   my $number = @images;
 1938   # standard options
 1939   my %options = ( 'tex_size' => 200,  # width for fitting 4 across
 1940                   'height' => 100,
 1941                   'width' => 100,
 1942                   @_            # overwrite any default options
 1943                 );
 1944 
 1945   if ($displayMode eq 'TeX') {
 1946     $out .= "\n\\par\\smallskip\\begin{center}\\begin{tabular}{"  .  "|c" x $number .  "|} \\hline\n";
 1947     while (@images) {
 1948       $out .= &image( shift(@images),%options ) . '&';
 1949     }
 1950     chop($out);
 1951     $out .= "\\\\ \\hline \n";
 1952     while (@captions) {
 1953       $out .= &caption( shift(@captions) ) . '&';
 1954     }
 1955     chop($out);
 1956     $out .= "\\\\ \\hline \n\\end {tabular}\\end{center}\\par\\smallskip\n";
 1957   } elsif ($displayMode eq 'Latex2HTML'){
 1958 
 1959     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} <TABLE  BORDER=1><TR>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n";
 1960     while (@images) {
 1961       $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} <TD>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n" . &image( shift(@images),%options )
 1962               . "\n\\begin{rawhtml} </TD>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n" ;
 1963     }
 1964 
 1965     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml}</TR><TR>\\end{rawhtml}\n";
 1966     while (@captions) {
 1967       $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} <TH>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n".&caption( shift(@captions) )
 1968               . "\n\\begin{rawhtml} </TH>\n\\end{rawhtml}\n" ;
 1969     }
 1970 
 1971     $out .= "\n\\begin{rawhtml} </TR> </TABLE >\n\\end{rawhtml}";
 1972   } elsif ($displayMode eq 'HTML' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_tth' || $displayMode eq 'HTML_dpng'|| $displayMode eq 'HTML_img'){
 1973     $out .= "<P>\n <TABLE BORDER=2 CELLPADDING=3 CELLSPACING=2 ><TR ALIGN=CENTER    VALIGN=MIDDLE>\n";
 1974     while (@images) {
 1975       $out .= " \n<TD>". &image( shift(@images),%options ) ."</TD>";
 1976     }
 1977     $out .= "</TR>\n<TR>";
 1978     while (@captions) {
 1979       $out .= " <TH>". &caption( shift(@captions) ) ."</TH>";
 1980     }
 1981     $out .= "\n</TR></TABLE></P>\n"
 1982   }
 1983   else {
 1984     $out = "Error: PGbasicmacros: imageRow: Unknown languageMode: $displayMode.\n";
 1985     warn $out;
 1986   }
 1987   $out;
 1988 }
 1989 
 1990 
 1991 ###########
 1992 # Auxiliary macros
 1993 
 1994 sub display_options2{
 1995   my %options = @_;
 1996   my $out_string = "";
 1997   foreach my $key (keys %options) {
 1998     $out_string .= " $key => $options{$key},<BR>";
 1999   }
 2000   $out_string;
 2001 }
 2002 
 2003 
 2004 1;

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