# Difference between revisions of "WeBWorK 2.17 Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS Amazon Machine Image"

These instructions cover setting up WeBWorK 2.17 using the WeBWorK 2.17 on Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS AMI (Amazon Machine Image).

This version contains everything you need to run a WeBWorK server (e.g. WeBWorK, Ubuntu Server, Apache2, MariaDB, R server, log rotation, etc.) installed and configured.

## Setting up the WeBWorK 2.17 Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS Amazon Machine Image

### Overview

After using the WeBWorK 2.17 on Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS Amazon Machine Image, you will have a full fledged Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS system with WeBWorK 2.17, Apache2, MariaDB, R server, log rotation, etc. installed and configured.

It is imperative that you CHANGE THE PASSWORDS for the OS user wwadmin (who owns most WeBWorK files), for the MariaDB user webworkWrite who has access to MariaDB, for the WeBWorK user admin who has admin privileges and for the WeBWorK user profa who has professor privileges (see below). Finally you should set up SSL (https) access to WeBWorK if students will be using your server.

There are more detailed instructions for Ubuntu Server 22.04 and WeBWorK 2.17 at Installation Manual for 2.17 on Ubuntu. The AMI (Amazon Machine Image) was built following those instructions.

### Find the AMI image

Sign in to the AWS Management Console (https://signin.aws.amazon.com/) and search for "EC2 Dashboard". You will be taken to the Amazon EC2 console. From the navigation bar (at the top of the page), select the "US East (Ohio) us-east-2" region. You can select any Region that's available to you, regardless of your location but the AMI image is stored in the US East (Ohio) region so you have to use that one. In the navigation pane (to the left) under IMAGES, select AMIs. Then to the left of the search bar, select "Public images" (the choices are "Owned by me", "Public images", "Private images") and in the search bar enter "WeBWorK". You should see WeBWorK 2.17 on Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS listed.

### Configure the WeBWorK AMI Image

Select the WeBWorK 2.17 on Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS AMI and hit Launch instance from AMI

#### Choose an Instance Type

Information on ec2 instance types can be found at https://aws.amazon.com/ec2/instance-types/. I would suggest you look at t3a or maybe t2 and t3 Instances.

The WeBWorK AMI was built from a t3a.small ec2 instance having the following resources:

• 20 GB disk drive of which about 7 GB is used
• 2 GB memory
• 2 (virtual) cpu

The above resources are minimal. These resources are OK for testing but it is possible to overwhelm the machine. This may happen e.g. if you want to simultaneously display many problems in the Library Browser or if you have several simultaneous users. If this happens your options are to wait until the server recovers or reboot the server.

The Mathematical Association of America (MAA) courses1 server (which is no longer in use) was a t2.2xlarge ec2 instance having the following resources:

• 70 GB disk drive
• 32 GB memory
• 8 (virtual) cpu's

The MAA courses1 server was hosting over 600 courses of which around 150 were active in June, 2020.

Most likely the resources required for your server will fall within the range from small to 2xlarge. You can always change the resources available to an instance (see #Changing the instance type below) but for this you will have to stop the instance. After restarting, the instance will have a new IP address, which means you will have to change the network setup (see The WeBWorK URL below). For this reason it is best to start with reasonable resources. For a server that you will be using with students it might be reasonable to start with a small or medium instance. But of course this is highly dependent on the number of students who will be using the server simultaneously.

#### Select or Create a key pair

A key pair is used to securely log into your server. Create a new key pair or use an existing one. Download and save the pem file (e.g. WWsecretkey.pem).

#### Network Settings

You can use the default security group or create a new one.

You also should create inbound rules so that you and others can communicate with your server instance. SSH (which you will use for direct terminal access to your server) is already set up but the source 0.0.0.0/0 means, as the warring states: "Rules with source of 0.0.0.0/0 allow all IP addresses to access your instance" but of course no one can login unless they have the appropriate credentials. You can restrict this to a specific workstation (e.g. 98.12.176.149/32) or a range (e.g.98.12.176.0/24) of ip addresses (e.g. workstations on your network). If you select "My IP", you will only be able to connect from your workstation which is good for security but maybe not convenience. You can always add other rules to SSH in from other workstations.

SSH	            TCP	           22	          98.12.176.149/32             SSH for admin


You should also allow HTTP (port 80). Initially for testing you may want to restrict these but for a production machine you would want to allow access from anywhere, i.e. 0.0.0.0/0. Note that except for guest users who have very limited access if you allow them at all, no one can log into WeBWorK on your server without a password. But see the section Passwords below for information on users who already have simple non secure passwords that must be changed.

#### Configure storage

You can change the amount of disk space. 20 GB is a reasonable amount to start with for a small server.

Also make sure that Delete on Termination is unchecked. Otherwise when you stop you instance, your root volume /dev/root (/dev/xvda1) will be deleted and this contains all changes you or your students may have made. Note that rebooting your server does not do this but stopping it (e.g. to increase memory or other resources) will.

Click "Launch instance" to launch your instance

Now Launch your server by clicking on "Launch instances". Clicking on the Instance ID is a fast way to get to your EC2 Dashboard. Or Click on "View all instances"

On your EC2 Dashboard (EC2 Management Console), find the Public IPv4 address, say 18.216.251.98. We will use this in our examples. Obviously you should substitute your own.

You can login to your server using SSH (non secure telnet and FTP are not allowed but secure SSH and SFTP are) using your favorite terminal emulator. Note that I had to update my terminal emulator (MobaXterm) in order to connect. I recommend you use the latest version of your favorite terminal emulator.

If you use a terminal emulator like MobaXterm use the Advanced SSH Settings to use the WWsecretkey.pem file as your private key. Check the "private key" box, search for WWsecretkey.pem and then connect to 18.216.251.98 and login as ubuntu (no password required). Other terminal emulators (Putty, iTerm2, etc) will be similar.

If you are using ssh in a terminal window, use the command

ssh -i WWsecretkey.pem ubuntu@18.216.251.98


(you may have to provide the path to the WWsecretkey.pem file). Note that the permission on the WWsecretkey.pem file is required to be set so that the file is not readable by others. You need something like

chmod 600 WWsecretkey.pem


If you are using a bash shell running on Ubuntu under Windows 10, you may find it impossible to change the permission of WWsecretkey.pem. In that case copy WWsecretkey.pem to your home directory and change the permission there. From the directory containing WWsecretkey.pem

cp WWsecretkey.pem ~/
cd
chmod 600 WWsecretkey.pem
ssh -i WWsecretkey.pem ubuntu@18.216.251.98


There are two users who can login to the system: ubuntu and wwadmin

#### ubuntu

ubuntu is the "system" user who has sudo privileges. You probably always want to initially log in as ubuntu using the secret key file WWsecretkey.pem.

##### Running commands as root

By default your Ubuntu server has no password set for the root user. To gain root access you have to use the sudo command while logged in as ubuntu.

To run commands as root use

$sudo <command>  A log of all sudo commands is kept in /var/log/auth.log . You can also use sudo to become root and get the root prompt #. To do this run $ sudo -s
#


When you want to exit the root prompt and return to being the regular user ubuntu, do the following

# exit
exit
$ #### wwadmin wwadmin is the "WeBWorK" administrator user who owns most of the WeBWorK system files. For example if you want to edit some WeBWorK file, you should use the su (switch user) command to become wwadmin. The password for wwadmin is "wwadmin" so the command is: $ su wwadmin
$ After you have finished whatever you have to do as wwadmin, you can return to being the ubuntu user by $exit
exit
$ wwadmin is not in the sudo group so if you want to use sudo, you have to be ubuntu. Also you should change the password for wwadmin to something much more secure than "wwadmin" (see Passwords). ### Set the Timezone for your server To find out what timezone your server is set to run the command $ timedatectl


and you will see

...
Time zone: Etc/UTC (UTC, +0000)
...


which is probably not where you live. The timezone naming convention uses a “Region/City” format and to find the correct one for your location run the command

$timedatectl list-timezones  Look through the list and find your timezone, e.g. "America/Los_Angeles". Then set the timezone (you have to be root), e.g. $ sudo timedatectl set-timezone America/Los_Angeles


and then

$timedatectl  to check it was set correctly. ## Checking for and Installing Hotfixes Follow the instructions at Checking for and Installing Hotfixes in the Installation Manual for 2.17 on Ubuntu. NOTE that to check for and/or install updates you will have to become the wwadmin user: $ su wwadmin
$ Important: The are bug fixes for both the webwork2 code and the pg code that occurred after the AMI was built. You should definitely update both the webwork2 and pg code. ## WeBWorK Configuration ### The WeBWorK URL We need a WeBWorK URL to give to students and professors so that they can access WeBWorK. For this we can use your servers public ip address (e.g. 18.216.251.98) or public URL address (e.g. ec2-18.216.251.98.us-east-2.compute.amazonaws.com) but besides being hard to remember this is really not a good idea for the following reason. These public addresses are only "semi-permanent". As long as your server instance is running they will remain fixed and will also remain fixed if you reboot your instance. However, if you stop your instance for any reason (e.g. to increase the resources it has) the public addresses will disappear and when you restart your server, it will have new and different public addresses. Then you must tell all your users they need to use a new URL to access WeBWorK. It is much better to use a permanent URL (something like webwork.yourschool.edu) and direct that to the public ip address of your instance (18.216.251.98 in our example). Then if your ever have to stop and restart your AWS instance, all you have to do is to redirect the webwork.yourschool.edu URL to the new public ip address and also change the ip address in one place (the $server_root_url) in site.conf. In my experience such changes propagate through the name servers quickly.

If for whatever reason you do not want to use a university URL, you can use Google Domains (https://domains.google/) or a similar provider to get and manage your own URL.

### The WeBWorK .conf files

Most WeBWorK configuration is done in the files /opt/webwork/webwork2/conf/site.conf and /opt/webwork/webwork2/conf/localOverrides.conf. These files provide system-wide configuration settings, and defaults for course settings. Any setting in these files can be overridden in the course.conf file for a particular course. To override a setting for a course, just put the new setting (using the same syntax as is in localOverrides.conf) in the course.conf file. An instructor can only edit the course.conf file herself (for her own course) if she has "admin" privilege which by default professors do not have. But most things instructors may want to customize and many others (language, timezone, permissions, display modes, email, ...) can be set using the Course Configuration page from within the course and such setting override those in the configuration files.

Usually the "admin" user is added as an admin in all new courses and she can grant "admin" privileges to anyone (but she should be very careful in doing this).

Actually there are three main configuration files, site.conf, defaults.config and localOverrides.conf. The reason there are three configuration files is to make upgrading WeBWorK easier.

• site.conf: This file contains global variables which are required for basic configuration. It will not be overridden when you update WeBWorK but its distribution version, site.conf.dist will be.
• defaults.config: This file contains initial settings for many customizable options in WeBWorK. Do not edit defaults.config. It will be overridden next time you upgrade.
• localOverrides.conf This is where you should add all local customizations. It will not be overridden when you update WeBWorK but its distribution version, localOverrides.conf.dist will be.

It is important to remember that any time you edit WeBWorK's configuration files, you have the restart Apache2 for the changes to take effect.

There are several options that must be set for WeBWorK to work with your system. The rest of the file consists of customization options.

#### Edit the site.conf file

Now backup and edit site.conf

$su wwadmin Password: wwadmin$ cd /opt/webwork/webwork2/conf
$cp site.conf site.conf.bak1$ nano site.conf


The $server_root_url is set as $server_root_url   = 'http://18.216.251.98/';


which you should replace with

 $server_root_url = 'http://12.345.678.90/';  where of course replace 12.345.678.90 by your actual ip address. WeBWorK uses the DateTime module. DateTime is supposed to be able to determine the local timezone itself without you having to enter it but this often fails so it is best to just set it here. For is a list of timezones recognized by DateTime run the command timedatectl list-timezones  These timezones are more refined than standard time zone usage in that they include switches to daylight savings time (e.g. some parts of a time zone may make the switch and others may not). For example if your server is in the eastern US, on the list you will see America/New_York and you should enter $siteDefaults{timezone} = "America/New_York"; which is the default. Read the documentation in this section of the the site.conf file for more information on selecting time zones and formatting dates.

Search for $siteDefaults{timezone} and enter your local timezone if it is not correct. Here is some information on email although you might want to hold off on this until you check that your server is functioning well. WeBWorK sends mail in three instances. The PG system sends mail to report answers to questionnaires and free-response problems. The mail merge module is used to send mail to course participants, i.e. to report scores. The feedback module allows participants to send mail to course instructors. To send mail, WeBWorK needs the address of an SMTP server. Normally you will use the address of your school's SMTP server. When connecting to the SMTP server, WeBWorK must also send an email address representing the sender of the email (this has nothing to do with the From address on the mail message). Edit the lines $mail{smtpServer} = ;  # e.g. 'mail.yourschool.edu' or 'localhost'
$mail{smtpSender} = ; # e.g. 'webwork@yourserver.yourschool.edu'  entering the appropriate information. Be sure to use single quotes and NOT double quotes around email addresses otherwise Perl will treat @ as an array variable. If you do not use your school's SMTP server, the following documentation may be helpful: Or if you want to install your own SMTP server: Then save the file and Quit. Now restart apache so that our changes to the conf files takes effect. First we have to stop acting as wwadmin and return to the ubuntu user. $ exit
exit
$sudo apache2ctl restart  #### The defaults.config file If you want WeBWorK questionnaires or similar things from different courses to be mailed to a central person or persons (e.g. the WeBWorK administrator), in defaults.config, you will see the lines $mail{allowedRecipients}     = [
#'prof1@yourserver.yourdomain.edu',
#'prof2@yourserver.yourdomain.edu',
];


But we are not supposed to edit the defaults.config file, so if we want to do this, we will copy this to localOverrides.conf and edit it appropriately. Note that we should move this setting to the site.conf file.

#### Edit the localOverrides.conf file

Now backup and edit localOverrides.conf

$cd /opt/webwork/webwork2/conf$ cp localOverrides.conf localOverrides.conf.bak1
$nano localOverrides.conf  As we said above, if you want WeBWorK questionnaires or similar things from different courses to be mailed to a central person or persons (e.g. the WeBWorK administrator), in localoverrides.config, add and then edit the lines $mail{allowedRecipients}     = [
#'prof1@yourserver.yourdomain.edu',
#'prof2@yourserver.yourdomain.edu',
];


Of course you have to remove the comment character #.

Then save the file and Quit.

Now restart apache so that our changes to the conf files takes effect. First we have to stop acting as wwadmin and return to the ubuntu user.

$exit exit$ sudo apache2ctl restart


## Test that Things are Working Properly

Connect to http://webwork.yourschool.edu/webwork2 (or http://18.216.251.98/webwork2 if your haven't set up a URL yet) where of course you should use your actual URL or ip address. We will test out a few important parts of WeBWorK. If you run into problems, you should look at the Apache error log which is located at /var/log/apache2/error.log. And you should look at Test that Things are Working Properly in the Installation_Manual_for_2.17_on_Ubuntu for help.

You should see the WeBWorK Welcome page with "Course Administration" and "myTestCourse" listed. At some point you may want to "hide" them so that they are not listed on the Welcome page (more on this later).

Click on "myTestCourse" and login with login name "profa" and password "profa". At this point you are a regular professor. There is also an administrator "admin", a regular student "jsmith" and several guest or practice users (who don't require a password but can view problems and "check" answers without them being "submitted" for credit). More on these below.

Now click on Homework Sets on the Main Menu and click on Demo. Then look at the problems. Mathematical equations should be typeset. Continue looking at problems to see if everything is working properly. Look through the problems in the other sets.

Next click on Problem List to bring back the Problem List Page and click on Download PDF .... The page is a little complicated because you are a professor so you see the professor view (students see a very simple page) but you can just scroll to the bottom and click on Generate hardcopy for selected users and selected sets.

Look through the problems in the other sets.

Now test the Library Browser. Note when using the Library Browser the default is to view 20 problems at once. If you are using a micro ec2 instance level, this may overwhelm the server. A small or larger ec2 instance level should work fine. You can display fewer problems and e.g. use the "top" command to check the load on the server.

If "top" shows a high load average and/or shows the kswapd0 process taking a large percentage of cpu then your system is getting overwhelmed. In particular kswapd0 manages virtual memory and may be having issues due to moving processes to SWAP too frequently, causing cpu spikes and decreased system performance. The solution is to allocate more memory to your instance. If your server gets hopelessly bogged down, you can try to wait it out or just reboot.

Click on Library Browser on the Main Menu. Click Open Problem Library  (actually it should already be selected so it will be greyed out) and select a Subject, Chapter and Section and then hit View Problems. The first 20 of your selected problems will be displayed.

Next test that WeBWorK problems using R run properly. You are already in the Library Browser. Select "Statistics" as Subject, "Bayesian inference" as Chapter and "Posterior distribution" as Section and then hit View Problems. If the problems display with no error messages, all should be well. To be totally sure, click on the "eye" (Try it) in the upper right corner and test the problem. If there are no error messages, congratulate yourself. Everything works.

If you are new to WeBWorK or even if you are a pro, you should probably log in as a student to see what the student interface looks like. It's much simpler than the professor or admin interfaces. Login with login name "jsmith" and password "jsmith". The "admin" view is very similar to the "prof" view but you have the ability to change things about the course that mere professors do not have. Finally you can click on "Guest Login" and see what that looks like.

## Set up WeBWorK to use SSL

This step configures apache so that access to WeBWorK will be through an encrypted connection (SSL) with an https: URL. It is optional but you should certainly do this if students will be using your server. Note that TLS is the successor protocol to SSL and is used everywhere. So that when we and others use the more common acronym SSL, we really are talking about TLS. The non encrypted lighttpd server is being used for images, MathJax, etc. so we should also set up the lighttpd server to run under SSL (see below).

First we have to obtain an official SSL certificate or generate a self-signed one which can be used for testing purposes. If students will be using your server, it is much better to obtain an official SSL certificate since using a self-signed certificate with cause warning messages to be displayed when students connect to the server.

### Obtain an Official SSL Certificate

Talk to the networking group on your campus about obtaining an official certificate. You can find information on the net about certificate providers, e.g. http://www.sslshopper.com/certificate-authority-reviews.html . Certbot (https://certbot.eff.org/) which uses Let's Encrypt certificates (https://letsencrypt.org/) is a good option if you are not using your organization's official certificates.

The certificate goes in /etc/ssl/certs/ and the key file goes in /etc/ssl/private/.

### Use a self-signed Certificate

When we installed the package openssh-server a self-signed certificate was automatically created. The certificate is stored at

/etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem


and the private key at

/etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key


This certificate and key may be regenerated manually with the following command (needs root privileges i.e. sudo):

$sudo make-ssl-cert generate-default-snakeoil --force-overwrite  which you might want to do since I believe the original certificate is only valid for 365 days. In the instructions below we will use the provided self-signed certificate (ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem and ssl-cert-snakeoil.key) but you can also generate your own using openssh following instructions on the web. As we said above, for a production server, you should really use an official certificate. ### Add inbound rules for Apache Create inbound rules for Apache on port 443. On your EC2 Management console, select the "Security Group" for your instance, "Inbound Rules", "Edit inbound rules" and then "Add rule" finally add the rule HTTPS TCP 443 0.0.0.0/0 HTTPS  Initially for testing you may want to restrict these but for a production machine you would want to allow from anywhere, i.e. 0.0.0.0/0 ### Set up Apache to use SSL First we enable the mod_ssl module $ sudo a2enmod ssl


Now we have to configure Apache to use SSL.

$cd /etc/apache2/sites-available/$ sudo cp default-ssl.conf default-ssl.conf.bak1
$sudo nano default-ssl.conf  Our self-signed certificate and key files are named ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem and ssl-cert-snakeoil.key. If you are using official files, put their names in the lines below. You will also have to edit the Certificate Chain, Certificate Authority and possibly other items. Instructions for doing so are beyond the scope of this document. You might look at https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-secure-apache-with-let-s-encrypt-on-ubuntu-20-04 Search for the lines SSLCertificateFile /etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key  and replace ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem and ssl-cert-snakeoil.key by the names of your certificate. Since in these instructions we are using ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem and ssl-cert-snakeoil.key, we can just leave the lines as is. Then save the file and quit. And enable default-ssl.conf $ sudo a2ensite default-ssl.conf


Finally we restart Apache

$sudo systemctl restart apache2  ### Edit site.conf This is important. We have to edit the value of$server_root_url in webwork2/conf/site.conf so that it uses https (so it should read e.g. 'https://12.345.678.90') where of course replace 12.345.678.90 by your actual ip address. If you don't do this, your may run into strange problems in the Library Browser. To check, open the Library Browser, select a subject and then click on the chapter area. If you see a drop down list of chapters, things are working properly.

Now we edit site.conf

$su wwadmin Password: wwadmin$ cd /opt/webwork/webwork2/conf
$cp site.conf site.conf.bak1$ nano site.conf


In the line

$server_root_url = 'http://12.345.678.90';  replace http by https where of course your file has your real ip address. Then save the file, quit, return to being the ubuntu user and restart apache $ exit
exit
$sudo service apache2 restart  ### Test that things are still working properly Connect to https://yourserver.yourschool.edu/webwork2/myTestCourse You will be asked to accept the certificate. After you do so things should work just as before except that the connection will be via https. ### Redirect http requests to https Assuming that everything is working, the last thing we do is set things up so that requests to http://yourserver.yourschool.edu/webwork2/ are automatically redirected to https://yourserver.yourschool.edu/webwork2/. $ cd /etc/apache2/sites-available
$sudo cp 000-default.conf 000-default.conf.bak1$ sudo nano 000-default.conf


In the

<VirtualHost *:80>


section just under the line

DocumentRoot /var/www/html


Redirect permanent /webwork2 https://yourserver.yourschool.edu/webwork2


where of course you should edit yourserver.yourschool.edu appropriately. Then save the file and quit. Restart Apache

$sudo service apache2 restart  and try connecting to http://yourserver.yourschool.edu/webwork2/. The real connection should be through https://yourserver.yourschool.edu/webwork2/. ## Finish up Once access to your WeBWorK server is set up (as it should be now), if all you want to do is test out WeBWorK yourself without any other users, you are all set at this point but please read the rest of these instructions so that you understand how insecure your WeBWorK server is right now. ## Passwords It is IMPERATIVE that you CHANGE THE PASSWORD for the OS user wwadmin (who has ownership of the WeBWorK files). Otherwise anyone can connect to your server and pretty easily gain access to the WeBWorK files. Also it is IMPERATIVE that you CHANGE THE PASSWORD for the MariaDB user webworkWrite who has login privileges to MariaDB. Otherwise anyone can connect to MariaDB server and pretty easily gain access to the WeBWorK database. Finally it is IMPERATIVE that you CHANGE THE PASSWORD for the WeBWorK user admin who has admin privileges both in the admin course and in the myTestCourse and for the WeBWorK user profa who has professor privileges in the myTestCourse. Otherwise anyone can connect to WeBWorK server and pretty easily gain access and do anything they want. #### Change the password for wwadmin $su wwadmin
$passwd Changing passwd for wwadmin: (current) UNIX password: wwadmin Enter new UNIX password: <new wwadmin password> Retype new UNIX password: <new wwadmin password> passwd: password update successfully$exit
exit
$ Do not forget the <new wwadmin password> that you just entered. Below when we refer to <wwadmin password>, we mean the new <wwadmin password> (<new wwadmin password>). #### Change the password for webworkWrite Now we change the passwords for the MariaDB user webworkWrite. First we edit site.conf. $su wwadmin
$cd /opt/webwork/webwork2/conf$ nano site.conf


Search for $database_password = "wwadmin"; and replace this by $database_password = "database_password"; where of course you should replace 'database_password' with your own password. We refer to this password as <database_password>. Remember it as we will need it shortly. Then save the file and Quit.

Then restart Apache so the changes take effect.

$exit exit$ sudo apache2ctl graceful


$sudo mysql  You should see Welcome to the MariaDB monitor ... MariaDBl>  Now lets check the MariaDB users. MariaDB> SELECT user,password,authentication_string,plugin,host FROM mysql.user;  You will see a table with two users (root and webworkWrite). You should see that both users have a valid password (which will be displayed in encrypted form) and root is authenticated by a socket. Now we will change the password for the webworkWrite User MariaDB> ALTER USER 'webworkWrite'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY '<database_password>';  where of course you should replace <database_password> by whatever you used above (use the single quotes but no angle braces). Then MariaDB> FLUSH PRIVILEGES; use your up arrow key to run the command MariaDB> SELECT user,password,authentication_string,plugin,host FROM mysql.user;  and you should see that webworkWrite has a new passwords (which will be displayed in encrypted form). Then exit MariaDB MariaDB> exit Bye$



If you want to check that you set the password correctly, do the following:

mysql -u webworkWrite -p -h127.0.0.1 --protocol=tcp


and you should see

Welcome to the MariaDB monitor ...


Now exit

MariaDB> exit
Bye
$ Finally a note on the MariaDB root password. In Ubuntu systems running MariaDB, the MariaDB root user is set to authenticate using the auth_socket plugin by default rather than with a password. However in securing MariaDB (see Installation_Manual_for_2.16_on_Ubuntu#Securing_the_Database) we had to set a password for the MariaDB root user and that password was set to "wwadmin" even though it is not used. If you ever change how the MariaDB root user is authenticated (you shouldn't!!), remember this. #### Change the password for admin Change the passwords for the WeBWorK user admin in two courses. Login to both the WeBWorK admin course (http://.../webwork2/admin) and myTestCourse (http://.../webwork2/myTestCourse) with Username "admin" and Password "admin". Then change the passwords from "admin" to something more secure. Note that in WeBWorK to change the password of the user you are logged in as, select "User Settings" in the "MAIN MENU". Or you can login as "profa" and use the "Classlist Editor" to change the password. #### Change the password for profa Change the passwords for the WeBWorK user profa. Login to myTestCourse (http://.../webwork2/myTestCourse) with Username "profa" and Password "profa". Then change the passwords from "profa" to something more secure. Or you can login as "admin" and use the "Classlist Editor" to change the password. #### Change the password for jsmith Change the passwords for the WeBWorK user jsmith if you want. jsmith is just a regular student so she can't do any real damage but you may still want to change the password. Login to myTestCourse (http://.../webwork2/myTestCourse) with Username "jsmith" and Password "jsmith". Then change the passwords from "jsmith" to something more secure. Or you can login as "admin" or "profa" and use the "Classlist Editor" to change the password. ## More House Keeping ### Hide the admin and myTestCourse courses Log out of myTestCourse if you are logged in and go to the WeBWorK Welcome page. Click on Course Administration and login as admin with the new admin password you set for the admin course. Select "Hide Inactive Courses" and select the courses you want to hide and hit "Hide Courses". If you go back to the WeBWorK Welcome page, you will see no courses listed. You can still access these courses directly by http://webwork.yourschool.edu/webwork2/admin http://webwork.yourschool.edu/webwork2/mytestcourse  where of course you should use your actual URL. ### Institution Logo The institution logo (which is the MAA logo by default) appears on every WeBWorK page. You can replace with you own logo by doing the following. We took these directions verbatim from Alex Jordan's Forum post https://webwork.maa.org/moodle/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=5642. All you need to do is add lines like these to a config file like localOverrides.conf:$institutionLogo = 'myimage'; $institutionURL = 'URL for target if a user clicks on the image';$institutionName = 'Name of the target, to be used in alt text';

myimage is an image file that you place in webwork2/htdocs/themes/math4/images/. It could be for example 'myimage.svg' containing some text.

The easiest way to do this is to search for the lines

# The institution logo should be an image file in the theme's images folder
#$institutionLogo = 'my_school_logo.png'; #$institutionURL  = 'http://www.myschool.edu';

### Increase disk space

This is a two part process. The first step is

#### Expand the EBS root volume

For general information look at the following reference and also google "expand disk of ec2"

Sign in to the AWS Management Console (https://signin.aws.amazon.com/) and search for the "EC2" service. You will be taken to the Amazon EC2 console. In the navigation pane (to the left), choose "Volumes", right click on the volume you what to expand and select "Modify Volume". In the pop up window select the new size, say 25, and click "Modify" and then confirm by clicking "Yes". You will see

 Modify Volume Request Succeeded
Your volume is now being modified.


The second step is to

#### Repartition the disk and expand the file system

Let us assume you have completed the first step and expanded the disk capacity from it's initial 20 GB to 25GB although in practice you will probably want to make it larger. First enter

$df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/root 20G 5.3G 15G 28% / ...  to see how much disk space we have initially. Now run parted as root: $ sudo parted


and you will see something like

GNU Parted 3.3
Using /dev/xvda
Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.
(parted)


Now enter the "print" command

(parted) print
Model: Xen Virtual Block Device (xvd)
Disk /dev/xvda: 26.8GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
Disk Flags:

Number  Start   End     Size    Type     File system  Flags
1      1049kB  21.5GB  21.5GB  primary  ext4         boot

(parted)


We need to know the number of the partition we want to resize. We can see it is 1 from the above. Now enter the "resizepart" command

(parted) resizepart
Partition number? 1
Warning: Partition /dev/xvda1 is being used. Are you sure you want to continue?
Yes/No? Yes
End?  [21.5GB]? 26.5GB
(parted)


Now enter the "print" command again

(parted) print
Model: Xen Virtual Block Device (xvd)
Disk /dev/xvda: 26.8GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
Disk Flags:

Number  Start   End     Size    Type     File system  Flags
1      1049kB  26.5GB  26.5GB  primary  ext4         boot

(parted)


Notice we now have a 26.5 GB disk. Now quit parted.

(parted) quit
Information: You may need to update /etc/fstab.


Now we resize the file system. The above information tells us that we are working on partition 1 on /dev/xvda, so we use /dev/xvda1 in the command below

$sudo resize2fs /dev/xvda1 resize2fs 1.45.5 (07-Jan-2020) Filesystem at /dev/xvda1 is mounted on /; on-line resizing required old_desc_blocks = 3, new_desc_blocks = 4 The filesystem on /dev/xvda1 is now 6469470 (4k) blocks long.  and run df -h and we should see something like $ df -h
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/root        24G  5.3G   19G  23% /
...


indicating that we now a lot more space on our disk. Yea!

## File and Directory Locations and System Information

This installation of WeBWorK and Ubuntu follows the instructions given in Installation_Manual_for_2.17_on_Ubuntu. You can look there to find the locations of the WeBWorK files. MathJax is installed locally and optional configurations B and C are implemented.

• Optional A is not implemented. Option A configures Apache so that access to WeBWorK will be through an encrypted connection (TLS/SSL) with an https: URL. This has to be done locally and you may have already implemented this.

## Known Issues

Here are the known issues with this release.

### PGbasicmacros.pl

Displaying certain symbols (e.g. {, },<,>,≤, ≥) in the text (not in Math Mode) of a WeBWorK problem fails. An example is Problem 1 in Set 0 in "myTestCourse" (see Test that Things are Working Properly below). For information on this see https://github.com/openwebwork/pg/issues/473. This can be fixed. However the fix causes trouble with WeBWorK problems that use the associated macros incorrectly in Math Mode (see https://webwork.maa.org/moodle/mod/forum/discuss.php?d=5727) and there are quite a few more problems that use them incorrectly than correctly. If you use any of these problems, the easiest solution would be to not perform the fix.

If you do what to proceed with the fix we need to edit the PGbasicmacros.pl file.

$cd /opt/webwork/pg/macros$ cp PGbasicmacros.pl PGbasicmacros.pl.bak1

\$ nano PGbasicmacros.pl


Look for the line

HTML_MathJax     => [ "HTML_dpng", "HTML_tth", "HTML", ],


and replace it by

#HTML_MathJax     => [ "HTML_dpng", "HTML_tth", "HTML", ],
HTML_MathJax     => [ "HTML_dpng", "HTML", "HTML_tth", ],


Then save the file and Quit.

-- Main.ArnoldPizer - August 2022